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In the last decade, bread consumption was decreasing in Hungary (from 44.5 kg to 34.4 kg/capita). Our aim is to identify the factors influencing the consumption of different bread and bakery products, using the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ).

FCQ is frequently used to explore factors (e.g., price, packaging, etc.) influencing the purchase of different food products. The adapted version of the FCQ for breads and bakery products is not yet available in Hungarian language. Word association (WA) and triangulation methods are usually used in the adaptation process.

Due to COVID-19, WA method was performed with a newly developed application presenting six photos of breads. This was completed by 193 participants. Responses were analysed using a categorizing triangulation technique, based on which the FCQ was modified.

In this study, we present the implementation and the results of the digitalized WA method and its use in the adaptation process of the FCQ.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Attila Gere
Abdul Hannan Bin Zulkarnain
Dorina Szakál
Orsolya Fehér
, and
Zoltán Kókai


Virtual reality (VR) offers a new instrument for food scientists to evaluate different aspects of food products. The possible applications range from product design testing, evaluation of the labels, effects of different placements or the evaluation of store layouts. These analyses help us to get a deeper understanding of consumers' minds. Additionally, VR can be coupled by several different tools (e.g. eye-trackers or skin conductance sensors or even electroencephalographs). However, as there have been only a limited number of applications published, there are several open questions which need to be answered. In the presented paper the authors aim i) to introduce the current knowledge on VR applications in food science by introducing several fields of applications and ii) to point out the most important questions regarding the applications of VR in food science.

Open access