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Károly Viski (Torda, 1882-Budapest, 1945) was an outstanding figure in European ethnology in the years between 1920–1945. He was born in Transylvania and trained as a secondary school teacher of Hungarian and Latin at the university of Kolozsvár. As a young teacher he taught in schools in Transylvanian towns and did research on the history of the Hungarian language and dialectology. In 1920 he joined the staff of the Museum of Ethnography in Budapest and became an expert in decorative arts, material culture and European ethnology. His book on the folk art of Transylvania written in the early 1920s was published in many languages. He played a role in the choice of a European, Scandinavian orientation for Hungarian ethnology and in strengthening ties with Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Poland. He was the spiritus rector and editor of the big four-volume synthesis published in the 1930s which presented traditional Hungarian material culture and folklore in a broad European context. He devoted special attention to research on the cultural heritage of the peoples of Transylvania, the co-existence of the Hungarian, German and Romanian ethnic groups and the history of cultural exchange processes. He did a great deal for museums, collections and exhibitions of ethnography. Between 1940–45 as professor at the university of Kolozsvár and later of Budapest he trained a whole series of outstanding students (e.g. Károly Kós, János Kodolányi, Ágnes Kovács, Mária Kresz, Károly Gaál, László Vajda).

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Abstract

Ernő Tárkány Szücs was a prominent figure in Hungarian social ethnography between 1944 and 1984. His involvement in the movement for collecting legal folk customs began as a university student in 1941. Among his professors and mentors, he was particularly influenced by György Bónis, Károly Viski, and József Venczel. His first large-scale study, published in 1944, was a presentation of legal folklore from the village of Mártély. At the same time, he investigated the folk laws related to sheep farming and the legal customs with respect to inheritance in the Hungarian villages in Transylvania. He published two substantial volumes containing the wills of peasant citizens of Hódmezővásárhely written between 1730 and 1796, and later the testaments of serf farmers from the town of Makó. He published a data collection containing around 10,000 ownership certificates and an analytical study in German on the branding of horses and cattle, accompanied by illustrations. He carried out research on the legal customs associated with Hungarian mining in the 17th to 19th centuries and elaborated Hungary's draft mining law. His principal work — on Hungarian Legal Folk Customs — is a substantial, comprehensive, and incomparably rich corpus of legal ethnography and the history of law. His work also gained recognition abroad: he spoke at many international conferences and was elected as a member of several international organizations.

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The castle of Borosjenő (Ineu, Romania), which is largely Renaissance in form, also displays important architectural phases from before and after this period. During the on-site art historical research of 2016 and 2019 it was an especially important task removing numerous Romanesque, pre-1200 carvings in secondary use as building material. The (majority of) carvings we have identified most likely originated in the monastery of Dénesmonostora (Dienesmonostora), which once stood near Borosjenõ. Probably by the end of the fourteenth century, when it had disappeared from the written sources, and certainly by the sixteenth century, the monastery had been abandoned, and its remains have since disappeared. Proof of the high artistic value of these carvings was the capital depicting a siren, removed during the reconstruction of the castle in the 1870s. The owner of the castle at that time donated it to the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, where today it is a part of the permanent collection. Some of the newly-founded capitals and other decorative architectural elements have very rare analogies in the Hungarian Romanesque architecture, but show artistic connections with the Alsace region (e.g. Sainte foy church in Sélestat). Several other medieval fragments can be dated to a period later than the twelfth century. The paper contains also a catalogue of about thirty-eight carved stone-fragments.

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A talaj mikrobiális biomassza mennyiségének ismerete a növényi tápelemek transzformációja, és a talajállapot minőségének jellemzése miatt fontos. Meghatározását leggyakrabban kloroform fumigációs módszerrel végzik. A kloroformkezelés hatására bekövetkező tömeges mikrobapusztulás arányos az összes biomassza mennyiségével, amely a többlet CO 2 -képződés, vagy a talajból kivonható megnövekedett szerves anyag alapján mérhető. Tárgyaljuk az inkubációs és extrakciós módszereket, összehasonlítva más eljárásokkal. A méréseket befolyásoló tényezőket és a különböző sterilizálási eljárásokat is összehasonlítjuk.

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Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Attila Keresztes
,
Gábor Kovács
, and
István Fekete

DavidS. Gorfein, C__

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Recently, an increase in the occurrence of oral diseases in cats has been observed. Symptoms vary from case to case, but loss of appetite or fastidiousness can almost always be noted. Proliferative inflammatory eosinophilic granulomatosis is a common disease in cats, which may be localised to the skin, the mucocutaneous junctions or the oral cavity. The disease has three different manifestations: indolent cellular ulcer, eosinophilic plaque, and eosinophilic granuloma. The last mentioned form predominantly affects the medial surface of the thigh, the cheek, the tongue and the palate. Pain is not common, the lesion is nonpruritic if localised to the skin, but the nodular form in the oral cavity may make deglutition difficult. In this case, a 10.5-year-old cat was presented in poor condition due to feeding problems. Examination revealed a mass of unknown origin with macroscopically tumorous appearance, localised to the pharyngeal part of the tongue, which made swallowing and voluntary feeding difficult. The granuloma was removed by laser-assisted surgery. After adequate preparation, a LASER diode with 6–10 W output power was used, set to continuous constant-amplitude output (CW) running in a 0.6 mm optic fibre to the site of interest. The removed tissue was examined for pathomorphological features: haematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, Azan and PAS stainings were performed to aid diagnosis. After surgery the cat recovered fast on steroids, and its condition and quality of life improved greatly. The traditional surgical technique was inapplicable due to the heavy vasculature and corresponding bleeding of the tongue.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Lajos Döbrőssy
,
Attila Kovács
, and
András Budai

Absztrakt

A citológiai vizsgálatra alapozott méhnyakszűrés – elméletileg – alkalmas korán felismerni és kezelésre juttatni a méhnyak rákmegelőző állapotait és rákját, ezáltal javítani az életminőséget és mérsékelni a célbetegségből eredő halálozást. Ez a lehetőség gyakran kihasználatlan marad, mert egyenlőtlenségek mutatkoznak mind a szűrés „kínálati”, mind a „keresleti” oldalán. Az egyenlőtlenségek – az ország geopolitikai helyzetén túlmenően – adódhatnak az egészségügyi ellátórendszer különbözőségeiből, a szűrés mint szolgáltatás elérhetőségéből. Másfelől, a felkínált szűrés elfogadására befolyással van a célnépesség társadalmi-gazdasági helyzete, egészségtudatossága és tájékozottsága a szűrővizsgálat mibenlétéről, hasznáról és a lehetséges károkozásról. A szolgáltatóknak szorgalmazni kell a felajánlott szűrővizsgálat mind teljesebb elfogadását. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(24), 955–963.

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Kinetics of growth and product formation of G. toluenoxydans DSMZ 19350 strain were investigated using sodium-acetate as substrate and Fe3+-ions and fumarate as electron acceptor. Response surface method was adapted for evaluation of growth of bacteria. Results showed that maximum growth was detected in the case of 2.2 g/L substrate concentration. Application of higher substrate concentration (>2.5 g/L sodium acetate) significantly inhibits the bacterial growth. Luong’s model was found to be the most suitable to determine kinetic parameters (μmax = 0.033 1/h, KS = 0.205 g/L) of growth of G.toluenoxydans strain, and the growth was completely inhibited at substrate concentration higher than 3.1 g/L. In the case of product formation the Haldane model was used and kinetic parameters are μPmax = 0.123 mg/h, KPS= 0.184 g/L. Correlation between microbial growth and product formation was observed using the Luedeking–Piret empirical method. Both factors (growth and number of cells) affected significantly iron(III)-reduction, thus the product formation. These results are important and open the possibility to design a continuous MFC setting operating with G. toluenoxydans as biocatalyst.

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Rectosigmoidealis tumor resectióját követő hasfali rekonstrukció osztályunkon

Abdominal wall reconstruction after resection of a rectosigmoid tumour

Magyar Sebészet
Authors:
Lóderer Zoltán
,
Kovács István
,
Kurán Gyula
,
Kovács Tamás
, and
Nagy Attila

Absztrakt

Középkorú nőbeteget operáltunk osztályunkon lokálisan kiterjedt rectosigmoidealis tumor (GII,T4Nx) miatt. Rectosigmoidealis resectiót és a tumor hasfali propagációja következtében a hasfal partialis exstirpációját végeztük. Műtéti radikalitás: R0. A hasfalat 3 db egymással, a maradék hasfallal és distalisan a symphysisszel összevarrt Gore Mycromesh Plus hálóval, majd kétoldali m.rectus femoris musculocutan neurovascularis lebennyel rekonstruáltuk. Féléves kontroll során recidívát nem észleltünk, passage rendezett, betegünk jó általános állapotban van, hasfala jól tart, mindennapi feladatait képes jól ellátni.

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