Validated in several languages, the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) is a popular and reliable instrument used in the assessment of perceived happiness. The aims of two current studies were to determine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version in volunteer adults (N = 252) and non-volunteer university students (N = 142). Exploratory factor analysis of the data gathered from volunteers confirmed the unidimensional structure of the Hungarian SHS (SHS-HU). One component explained 53.69% of the variance. The internal reliability in this sample was .80. Confirmatory factor analyses on the non-volunteer university students’ data yielded excellent model fit (SRMR = .0208; NFI = . 990; GFI = .995; RMSEA < .001; CFI = 1.00) and acceptable internal reliability (.75). The one-week test-retest reliability of the SHS-HU was 0.83. In both studies, the SHS-HU revealed positive correlations with life satisfaction and optimism, while it was inversely related to pessimism (p < .001). The more optimistic individuals scored higher on SHS-HU in both studies (p < .001) which confirmed the scale's divergent validity. Further, when controlling for life satisfaction, optimism and pessimism, there were no gender differences in the SHS-HU scores. These results lend support for the adequate psychometric properties of SHS-HU. Therefore, preliminary evidence suggests that the SHS-HU is appropriate for the assessment of perceived happiness in the Hungarian population.
The paper compares the possibilities of refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection toward their political integration in two countries, Hungary and the United Kingdom. The aim of this comparison is not judge which country is better in this sense but to present and explain a few relevant dimensions of the political integration of refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection. The scrutinized dimensions are the fundamental right of being recognized as a refugee; the right to stay, including legal residency, social support, education, right for employment and right to vote; the right to the free movement furthermore direct political rights as the right to vote; the freedom of expression; the freedom of association and the freedom of assembly and finally possibilities for preferential naturalization.
Obviously, there is no possibility to analyse and evaluate the whole integration process but at least, its legal dimensions are presented in the paper. In the conclusion, the author will make a few suggestions what should be considered when thinking about these questions.
Background and aims: With the growing number of virtual sites and easy access to them, as well as increasing popularity of the game, online poker could foster addiction. The aim of the current inquiry was to gauge susceptibility to behavioural addiction in online and traditional poker players. Methods: Ninety-six online poker players and 35 traditional players were tested on the basis of the “Components model” for addiction (Griffiths, 2005). Using a Likert scale, ratings on six components were examined: salience, conflict, mood modification, withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, and relapse. Results: The traditional players scored higher than online players on measures of conflict, mood modification, and relapse. While none of the traditional players were at risk, the majority of them (94.7%) were symptomatic. Two online players were at risk, 67.7% symptomatic and 30.2% asymptomatic. No significant correlations have emerged between the amount and history of poker playing and the addiction scores. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that most traditional players are prone to behavioural addiction while the majority of the online players are also symptomatic.
The Late Cretaceous (Santonian) fish fauna of the Iharkút vertebrate site (Bakony Mountains, Hungary) is described here. The ichthyofauna includes the lepisosteid Atractosteus sp., the pycnodontid cf. Coelodus sp., Vidalamiinae indet., a non-vidalamiin Amiidae indet., Elopiformes indet., two indeterminate ellimmichthyiforms, cf. Salmoniformes indet., Acanthomorpha indet., at least one indeterminate teleostean, and numerous indeterminate actinopterygians (represented by teeth). Among these taxa, the Iharkút remains of Vidalamiinae and the suggested indeterminate Salmoniformes represent their first occurrence in the Late Cretaceous of Europe. The unidentifiable specimens may suggest the presence of further fish taxa. The gar remains described here further support the Atractosteus sp. affinity of the Iharkút form. Most of the Iharkút fishes are carnivorous, but durophagous taxa are also represented. Although chondrichthyan remains have not been identified in the Iharkút vertebrate material up to now, the ecological distribution of some local fish taxa presumes the possible vicinity of a marine–deltaic environment. Several Iharkút fish taxa are known from North American localities as well, suggesting that the Late Cretaceous European continental fish might have been more diverse and similar to that of North America than previously thought. The necessity of more intensive screen-washing at other European Late Cretaceous vertebrate sites is also emphasized.
Authors:Mária Rendi, Attila Szabó and György Bárdos
Szakirodalmi áttekintésünk egy olyan pszichológiai rendellenességet tárgyal, amelyben a kompulzív és obszesszív jellegű, túlzott mennyiségű testedzés valamilyen stressz vagy más pszichológiai probléma tüneteként jelentkezik. Ezt a ritka, de súlyos diszfunkciót testedzésfüggőségnek nevezzük. Ennek a deviáns edzési magatartásnak az okát a behaviorista elmélet a pozitív és negatív megerősítés alapján próbálja magyarázni, határvonalat húzva az egészséges és a beteges sportolás, illetve testedzés között. Az elemzés során egy fiziológiai és egy pszichológiai modellt mutatunk be. Áttekintjük a viselkedési függőségekben megjelenő alapvetőnek tekinthető közös tüneteket, a rendellenesség definiálásához alkalmazott vizsgálati módszerünk ezt a célt szolgálta. Egyúttal fel kell hívnunk a figyelmet arra is, hogy a testedzésfüggőség esetében az elterjedt kérdőíves módszer korlátokkal bír, a pontos diagnózis érdekében a jelenség mögött álló pszichológiai indítékot az erre képzett szakembereknek kell tovább vizsgálni.
Exercise addiction receives substantial attention in the field of behavioral addictions. It is a unique form of addiction because in contrast to other addictive disorders it is carried out with major physical-effort and high energy expenditure.
A critical literature review was performed.
The literature evaluation shows that most published accounts report the levels of risk for exercise addiction rather than actual cases or morbidities. The inconsistent prevalence of exercise addiction, ranging from 0.3% to 77.0%, reported in the literature may be ascribed to incomplete conceptual models for the morbidity. Current explanations of exercise addiction may suggest that the disorder is progressive from healthy to unhealthy exercise pattern. This approach drives research into the wrong direction.
An interactional model is offered accounting for the adoption, maintenance, and transformation of exercise behavior. The here proposed model has an idiosyncratic black-box containing the antecedents and characteristics that are unique to the individual, which cannot be researched via the nomothetic approach. Subjective aspects in the black-box interact with stressful life events that force the person to cope. The range of coping may be wide. Escape into exercise depends on personal (subjective) and situational (objective) factors, but the subjective components are inaccessible for a priori scholastic scrutiny. It is our view that currently only this dual interactional model may account for the fact that exercise addiction emerges suddenly and only in a few individuals from among those at high risk, estimated to be around 3.0% of the exercising population.
The purpose of the study was to seek a better insight into whether the online medium or the online activity was more important in relation to excessive online use. It is not clear whether those people who spend excessive amounts of time on the Internet are engaged in general Internet or whether excessive Internet use is linked to specific activities.
Perceived changes in Internet use habits as function of hypothetical accessibility of favorite sites were investigated in young adults. University students (n = 130, mean age = 20.6 years) who had (on average) spent over 20 hours a week on the Internet for at least nine years completed a survey. The most favored online activities and expected quality of life without Internet access were also investigated.
Findings revealed that social networking was by far the most popular online activity, and that lack of access to their preferred online activities would drop by 65% (as measured by perceived Internet usage). Approximately one in six participants (16%) claimed they would not even switch on the computer if access to their favorite online activities were unavailable. In relation to a hypothetical question about the quality of life without Internet access, the responses were normally distributed (rather than skewed).
These results show that time spent with Internet activity is not random and/or generalized, but appears more focused. Attraction or addiction on Internet to one or more specific behavior(s) may be a better way forward in the quest for better understanding excessive human behavior in the online environment.
Recent excavation and sampling in the upper part of the Felsőörs section (Balaton Highland, Hungary) yielded important ammonoid findings, identified as belonging to the genera Nevadites, Chieseiceras, Eoprotrachyceras and Falsanolcites. Several specimens of Chieseiceras chiesense were found in a dm-thick clay layer with limestone nodules, regarded as the equivalent of the “Chiesense Groove“ of the Bagolino and other sections in the Giudicarie area (North Italy). The immediately overlying limestone bed yielded Eoprotrachyceras cf. curionii and Falsanolcites cf. rieberi. Together these reliably prove the base of the Curionii Zone, corresponding to the base of the Ladinian Stage, the GSSP of which was recently established at Bagolino. The new data further improved the excellent correlation between the ammonoid records of the Felsőörs section and the Global Stratotype Section at Bagolino. Felsőörs may be considered the most important reference section for the Anisian to Ladinian boundary interval.