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Validated in several languages, the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) is a popular and reliable instrument used in the assessment of perceived happiness. The aims of two current studies were to determine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version in volunteer adults (N = 252) and non-volunteer university students (N = 142). Exploratory factor analysis of the data gathered from volunteers confirmed the unidimensional structure of the Hungarian SHS (SHS-HU). One component explained 53.69% of the variance. The internal reliability in this sample was .80. Confirmatory factor analyses on the non-volunteer university students’ data yielded excellent model fit (SRMR = .0208; NFI = . 990; GFI = .995; RMSEA < .001; CFI = 1.00) and acceptable internal reliability (.75). The one-week test-retest reliability of the SHS-HU was 0.83. In both studies, the SHS-HU revealed positive correlations with life satisfaction and optimism, while it was inversely related to pessimism (p < .001). The more optimistic individuals scored higher on SHS-HU in both studies (p < .001) which confirmed the scale's divergent validity. Further, when controlling for life satisfaction, optimism and pessimism, there were no gender differences in the SHS-HU scores. These results lend support for the adequate psychometric properties of SHS-HU. Therefore, preliminary evidence suggests that the SHS-HU is appropriate for the assessment of perceived happiness in the Hungarian population.

Open access

The paper compares the possibilities of refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection toward their political integration in two countries, Hungary and the United Kingdom. The aim of this comparison is not judge which country is better in this sense but to present and explain a few relevant dimensions of the political integration of refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection. The scrutinized dimensions are the fundamental right of being recognized as a refugee; the right to stay, including legal residency, social support, education, right for employment and right to vote; the right to the free movement furthermore direct political rights as the right to vote; the freedom of expression; the freedom of association and the freedom of assembly and finally possibilities for preferential naturalization.

Obviously, there is no possibility to analyse and evaluate the whole integration process but at least, its legal dimensions are presented in the paper. In the conclusion, the author will make a few suggestions what should be considered when thinking about these questions.

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Abstract

Background and aims: With the growing number of virtual sites and easy access to them, as well as increasing popularity of the game, online poker could foster addiction. The aim of the current inquiry was to gauge susceptibility to behavioural addiction in online and traditional poker players. Methods: Ninety-six online poker players and 35 traditional players were tested on the basis of the “Components model” for addiction (Griffiths, 2005). Using a Likert scale, ratings on six components were examined: salience, conflict, mood modification, withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, and relapse. Results: The traditional players scored higher than online players on measures of conflict, mood modification, and relapse. While none of the traditional players were at risk, the majority of them (94.7%) were symptomatic. Two online players were at risk, 67.7% symptomatic and 30.2% asymptomatic. No significant correlations have emerged between the amount and history of poker playing and the addiction scores. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that most traditional players are prone to behavioural addiction while the majority of the online players are also symptomatic.

Open access

The Late Cretaceous (Santonian) fish fauna of the Iharkút vertebrate site (Bakony Mountains, Hungary) is described here. The ichthyofauna includes the lepisosteid Atractosteus sp., the pycnodontid cf. Coelodus sp., Vidalamiinae indet., a non-vidalamiin Amiidae indet., Elopiformes indet., two indeterminate ellimmichthyiforms, cf. Salmoniformes indet., Acanthomorpha indet., at least one indeterminate teleostean, and numerous indeterminate actinopterygians (represented by teeth). Among these taxa, the Iharkút remains of Vidalamiinae and the suggested indeterminate Salmoniformes represent their first occurrence in the Late Cretaceous of Europe. The unidentifiable specimens may suggest the presence of further fish taxa. The gar remains described here further support the Atractosteus sp. affinity of the Iharkút form. Most of the Iharkút fishes are carnivorous, but durophagous taxa are also represented. Although chondrichthyan remains have not been identified in the Iharkút vertebrate material up to now, the ecological distribution of some local fish taxa presumes the possible vicinity of a marine–deltaic environment. Several Iharkút fish taxa are known from North American localities as well, suggesting that the Late Cretaceous European continental fish might have been more diverse and similar to that of North America than previously thought. The necessity of more intensive screen-washing at other European Late Cretaceous vertebrate sites is also emphasized.

Open access
Authors: Edina Szabó and Attila Szabo

Kent A. Kiehl and Walter P. Sinnott-Armstrong, Eds. Handbook on psychopathy and law, reviewed by Edina Szabó

Katherine Schreiber and Heather A. Hausenblas The truth about exercise addiction – Understanding the dark side of thinspiration, reviewed by Attila Szabo

Open access

Szakirodalmi áttekintésünk egy olyan pszichológiai rendellenességet tárgyal, amelyben a kompulzív és obszesszív jellegű, túlzott mennyiségű testedzés valamilyen stressz vagy más pszichológiai probléma tüneteként jelentkezik. Ezt a ritka, de súlyos diszfunkciót testedzésfüggőségnek nevezzük. Ennek a deviáns edzési magatartásnak az okát a behaviorista elmélet a pozitív és negatív megerősítés alapján próbálja magyarázni, határvonalat húzva az egészséges és a beteges sportolás, illetve testedzés között. Az elemzés során egy fiziológiai és egy pszichológiai modellt mutatunk be. Áttekintjük a viselkedési függőségekben megjelenő alapvetőnek tekinthető közös tüneteket, a rendellenesség definiálásához alkalmazott vizsgálati módszerünk ezt a célt szolgálta. Egyúttal fel kell hívnunk a figyelmet arra is, hogy a testedzésfüggőség esetében az elterjedt kérdőíves módszer korlátokkal bír, a pontos diagnózis érdekében a jelenség mögött álló pszichológiai indítékot az erre képzett szakembereknek kell tovább vizsgálni.

Restricted access
Authors: Domonkos Pap, Ádám Vannay and Attila Szabó J.

Absztrakt:

A vese filtrációs alapegységei a glomerulusok, melyek passzív hemodinamikai feladatukon túl komplex szabályozási mechanizmusokban is részt vesznek. Ezek közül fontosak az immunmediált folyamatok, amelyek a glomerularis homeostasis élettani biztosításán túl lokális szövetkárosító mechanizmusokat is elindíthatnak. Az immunológiai eredetű krónikus glomerularis betegségek gyakori okai a végstádiumú vesebetegség kialakulásának. Az immunrendszer kétélű kardként részt vesz a vese fiziológiás állapotának fenntartásában, de emellett meghatározó szerepe van a glomerularis károsodások kiváltásában. A nem megfelelően szabályozott, túlzott mértékű immunválasz felelős a glomerulonephritisek jelentős részéért, mely folyamat során károsodhat a glomerulusokat alkotó valamennyi strukturális és sejtes elem, beleértve a glomerularis bazálmembránt, a mesangialis és kapilláris-endothelsejteket, a podocytákat, valamint a parietalis epithelsejtréteget. Közleményünkben az egyes glomerularis komponenseknek, valamint a természetes és adaptív immunrendszernek a glomeruluskárosodásban betöltött szerepét foglaljuk össze. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(24): 993–1001.

Open access

Absztrakt:

A laboratóriumi vizsgálatoknak kiemelten fontos szerepe van számos betegség esetében a diagnózis meghatározásában. A mérési eredményeket a laboratóriumok által megadott normálértékekhez hasonlítjuk. Néhány esetben ezek a nemtől és a kortól is függenek. Az alkalikus foszfatáz esetében ritkán vesszük figyelembe, hogy bizonyos életszakaszokban eltérő referenciaértékekkel kell számolnunk a két nemben. A napi gyakorlat során gyakran az életkorral összefüggő változásokat sem vesszük figyelembe. Különösen igaz ez akkor, ha a laboratórium nem ad meg életkori normálértékeket. Egy másik probléma lehet, hogy az alkalikus foszfatáz esetében a normálértékeket meghaladó, magasabb eredményekre fókuszálunk, és nem tulajdonítunk hasonló fontosságot a referenciahatár alá eső értékeknek. Természetesen soha nem egy-egy laboratóriumi paramétert, hanem a beteg panaszait, a fizikális vizsgálat során látott képet és az egyéb diagnosztikai eredményeket kell értékelnünk a pontos diagnózis felállításához. A következőkben szeretnénk felhívni a figyelmet egy gyakran mért laboratóriumi paraméter, az alkalikus foszfatáz szerepére egyes betegségek diagnosztikájában, különös tekintettel az életkori normálértékek alatt mért esetekben. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(26): 1003–1007.

Open access
Authors: Mark D. Griffiths and Attila Szabo PhD

Abstract

Aims

The purpose of the study was to seek a better insight into whether the online medium or the online activity was more important in relation to excessive online use. It is not clear whether those people who spend excessive amounts of time on the Internet are engaged in general Internet or whether excessive Internet use is linked to specific activities.

Methods

Perceived changes in Internet use habits as function of hypothetical accessibility of favorite sites were investigated in young adults. University students (n = 130, mean age = 20.6 years) who had (on average) spent over 20 hours a week on the Internet for at least nine years completed a survey. The most favored online activities and expected quality of life without Internet access were also investigated.

Results

Findings revealed that social networking was by far the most popular online activity, and that lack of access to their preferred online activities would drop by 65% (as measured by perceived Internet usage). Approximately one in six participants (16%) claimed they would not even switch on the computer if access to their favorite online activities were unavailable. In relation to a hypothetical question about the quality of life without Internet access, the responses were normally distributed (rather than skewed).

Conclusions

These results show that time spent with Internet activity is not random and/or generalized, but appears more focused. Attraction or addiction on Internet to one or more specific behavior(s) may be a better way forward in the quest for better understanding excessive human behavior in the online environment.

Open access