Validated in several languages, the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) is a popular and reliable instrument used in the assessment of perceived happiness. The aims of two current studies were to determine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version in volunteer adults (N = 252) and non-volunteer university students (N = 142). Exploratory factor analysis of the data gathered from volunteers confirmed the unidimensional structure of the Hungarian SHS (SHS-HU). One component explained 53.69% of the variance. The internal reliability in this sample was .80. Confirmatory factor analyses on the non-volunteer university students’ data yielded excellent model fit (SRMR = .0208; NFI = . 990; GFI = .995; RMSEA < .001; CFI = 1.00) and acceptable internal reliability (.75). The one-week test-retest reliability of the SHS-HU was 0.83. In both studies, the SHS-HU revealed positive correlations with life satisfaction and optimism, while it was inversely related to pessimism (p < .001). The more optimistic individuals scored higher on SHS-HU in both studies (p < .001) which confirmed the scale's divergent validity. Further, when controlling for life satisfaction, optimism and pessimism, there were no gender differences in the SHS-HU scores. These results lend support for the adequate psychometric properties of SHS-HU. Therefore, preliminary evidence suggests that the SHS-HU is appropriate for the assessment of perceived happiness in the Hungarian population.
The paper compares the possibilities of refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection toward their political integration in two countries, Hungary and the United Kingdom. The aim of this comparison is not judge which country is better in this sense but to present and explain a few relevant dimensions of the political integration of refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection. The scrutinized dimensions are the fundamental right of being recognized as a refugee; the right to stay, including legal residency, social support, education, right for employment and right to vote; the right to the free movement furthermore direct political rights as the right to vote; the freedom of expression; the freedom of association and the freedom of assembly and finally possibilities for preferential naturalization.
Obviously, there is no possibility to analyse and evaluate the whole integration process but at least, its legal dimensions are presented in the paper. In the conclusion, the author will make a few suggestions what should be considered when thinking about these questions.
The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) is a brief validated instrument adopted by many to assess the risk of exercise addiction. Its revised version (the EAI-R) has been recently validated in English with a predominantly male sample. The current work examined the model fit, validity and reliability of the Hungarian version of the EAI-R (EAI-R-HU). This cross-sectional study was conducted online. A convenience sample of regular exercisers (n = 253) completed the EAI-R-HU and answered demographic questions. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good model fit for the Hungarian version of the instrument. The internal reliability of the EAI-R-HU was (Cronbach’s α) .71. Considering the top 20% of the EAI-R-HU scores, 5.1% of the sample was at risk of exercise addiction. Team exercisers did not differ from individual exercisers in the risk of exercise addiction. Age and exercise characteristics predicted weakly but statistically significantly the risk of exercise addiction. The EAI-R-HU possesses a good model fit, and its internal reliability is acceptable. These findings complement the original revision of the EAI-R, based on a largely (87.7%) male sample compared to the current research primarily based on female participants (76.7%). While cultural differences might exist, the present results encourage the use of the EAI-R with women too and with Hungarian samples, in general.
A Testedzésfüggőség Kérdőív (EAI) egy rövid, validált eszköz, amelyet a testedzésfüggőség kockázatának felmérésére használnak. Az angol nyelvű módosított változatát (EAI-R) nemrégiben egy többségében férfiakból álló mintán validálták. Jelen kutatás a magyar változat (EAI-R-HU) egyfaktoros elméleti struktúrájának illeszkedését, validitását, és a kérdőív belső megbízhatóságát vizsgálta. A hozzáférhetőségi mintavétellel zajló adatgyűjtés online történt. Rendszeresen edző önkéntesek (n = 253) kitöltötték a módosított EAI-t (EAI-R-HU) és megválaszolták a demográfiai kérdéseket. A megerősítő faktoranalízis jó modellillesztést mutatott, a skála belső megbízhatósága (Cronbach-α) pedig 0,71 volt. Az EAI-R-HU pontszámok felső 20%-át figyelembe véve, a jelen minta 5,14%-a volt feltételezhetően a testedzésfüggőség kockázatának kitéve. A csoportban edzők nem különböztek az egyéni edzést végzőktől a testedzésfüggőség kockázatát illetően. Az életkor és a testmozgás egyes jellemzői gyengén, de statisztikailag szignifikánsan prognosztizálták a testedzésfüggőség kockázatát. Az eredmények alapján az EAI-R-HU jó modellalkalmazással rendelkezik és a belső megbízhatósága elfogadható. Ezek a megállapítások kiegészítik az angol EAI-R változatát, amely nagyrészt (87,7%) férfi minta alapján jött létre, szemben a jelen kutatással, amely elsősorban női résztvevőkön alapszik (76,7%). Bár létezhetnek kulturális különbségek, a jelenlegi eredmények ösztönzik az EAI-R alkalmazását a nőknél is és az EAI-R-HU felhasználását magyar kutatásokban.
Background and aims: With the growing number of virtual sites and easy access to them, as well as increasing popularity of the game, online poker could foster addiction. The aim of the current inquiry was to gauge susceptibility to behavioural addiction in online and traditional poker players. Methods: Ninety-six online poker players and 35 traditional players were tested on the basis of the “Components model” for addiction (Griffiths, 2005). Using a Likert scale, ratings on six components were examined: salience, conflict, mood modification, withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, and relapse. Results: The traditional players scored higher than online players on measures of conflict, mood modification, and relapse. While none of the traditional players were at risk, the majority of them (94.7%) were symptomatic. Two online players were at risk, 67.7% symptomatic and 30.2% asymptomatic. No significant correlations have emerged between the amount and history of poker playing and the addiction scores. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that most traditional players are prone to behavioural addiction while the majority of the online players are also symptomatic.
The Late Cretaceous (Santonian) fish fauna of the Iharkút vertebrate site (Bakony Mountains, Hungary) is described here. The ichthyofauna includes the lepisosteid Atractosteus sp., the pycnodontid cf. Coelodus sp., Vidalamiinae indet., a non-vidalamiin Amiidae indet., Elopiformes indet., two indeterminate ellimmichthyiforms, cf. Salmoniformes indet., Acanthomorpha indet., at least one indeterminate teleostean, and numerous indeterminate actinopterygians (represented by teeth). Among these taxa, the Iharkút remains of Vidalamiinae and the suggested indeterminate Salmoniformes represent their first occurrence in the Late Cretaceous of Europe. The unidentifiable specimens may suggest the presence of further fish taxa. The gar remains described here further support the Atractosteus sp. affinity of the Iharkút form. Most of the Iharkút fishes are carnivorous, but durophagous taxa are also represented. Although chondrichthyan remains have not been identified in the Iharkút vertebrate material up to now, the ecological distribution of some local fish taxa presumes the possible vicinity of a marine–deltaic environment. Several Iharkút fish taxa are known from North American localities as well, suggesting that the Late Cretaceous European continental fish might have been more diverse and similar to that of North America than previously thought. The necessity of more intensive screen-washing at other European Late Cretaceous vertebrate sites is also emphasized.
Background and aims: Aquatic exercises are popular leisure activities worldwide, primarily among women. These activities are especially beneficial for aging people and individuals having difficulties performing land-based exercises. Their physical health benefits have already been documented in the academic literature, but research on their mental health effects is still non-existent. However, leisure exercises promoting mental health are advantageous in a fast-paced and often stressful world. Therefore, in this in-situ (natural life setting) field study, we examined the acute mental benefits of aquatic exercises in 30 voluntary consenting women having a mean age of 57.57 (SD = 12.67) years. Methods: Using a within-participants research design, the subjectively perceived feeling states and felt arousal, along with positive and negative affect, were recorded before and after exercise. Moreover, the personal expectancies regarding the expected feelings after exercise were assessed before the workout to determine the influence of anticipation effects. Results: The findings revealed that core affect and positive affect improved substantially from before to after exercise (p < .001), as confirmed by the large effect sizes (Cohen’s d > 0.80). Negative affect decreased nonsignificantly (p = .062), but it was already low before exercise. Although expectancy scores were high before the exercise class, they did not correlate (p > .05) with the dependent measures’ magnitude of changes (pre-class – post-class scores). Conclusions: These findings suggest that women who participate in an aquatic exercise class report experiencing significant positive changes in their feelings, demonstrating this popular exercise’s acute mental health benefits. Although further controlled research is needed in this area, the current results have promising implications for middle-aged women’s mental health preservation and promotion.
Absolute pitch (AP) is an interdisciplinary phenomenon that has been the subject of research in the field of genetics, neuroscience, musicology, and psychology. Individuals with AP are able to identify the pitch of an isolated sound (passive AP) or to produce that sound (active AP) without a reference point. The aim of the authors is to give a literature review on AP, with special regard to psychological and Hungarian aspects. The phenomenon of AP was already known in the 18th century, but it was only in the last decades of the 19th century that it became the focus of research. Relatively small number of epidemiological studies have been carried out on AP. On the basis of study results, AP is very rare, its prevalence is given over a wide range, between 0.01 and 1% in the general population, and between 3.4 and 20% among trained musicians. AP is more prevalent among blind persons, Asian musicians, and those with autism spectrum disorder. Several forms of AP are distinguished; the relationship between AP and relative pitch is under the scope of studies. Implicit AP is a remarkable phenomenon. The cause of AP and the process of its development have not yet been explored. However, the interaction of genetic, environmental and neural factors seems to be crucial. There are strong evidences for the role of genetic factors and early music training. Neural correlates of AP, structural and functional differences in the nervous system of people with and without AP have been demonstrated, and the performances of these groups in musical tasks also differ.
Szakirodalmi áttekintésünk egy olyan pszichológiai rendellenességet tárgyal, amelyben a kompulzív és obszesszív jellegű, túlzott mennyiségű testedzés valamilyen stressz vagy más pszichológiai probléma tüneteként jelentkezik. Ezt a ritka, de súlyos diszfunkciót testedzésfüggőségnek nevezzük. Ennek a deviáns edzési magatartásnak az okát a behaviorista elmélet a pozitív és negatív megerősítés alapján próbálja magyarázni, határvonalat húzva az egészséges és a beteges sportolás, illetve testedzés között. Az elemzés során egy fiziológiai és egy pszichológiai modellt mutatunk be. Áttekintjük a viselkedési függőségekben megjelenő alapvetőnek tekinthető közös tüneteket, a rendellenesség definiálásához alkalmazott vizsgálati módszerünk ezt a célt szolgálta. Egyúttal fel kell hívnunk a figyelmet arra is, hogy a testedzésfüggőség esetében az elterjedt kérdőíves módszer korlátokkal bír, a pontos diagnózis érdekében a jelenség mögött álló pszichológiai indítékot az erre képzett szakembereknek kell tovább vizsgálni.