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Background and Aims

Exercise and physical activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but a few individuals use exercise excessively resulting in physical and even psychological damage. There is evidence for bi-directional relationship between exercise with depression and anxiety showing that exercise can reduce anxiety and depression, whereas a lack of exercise is associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression.

Methods

This study used questionnaires assessing compulsive exercise, anxiety and depression among 20 professional regular exercisers and 51 recreational regular exercisers.

Results

Results showed that ratings of compulsive exercise were associated with ratings of anxiety and depression among individuals who exercise for professional and recreational purpose. Secondly, individuals who exercise for professional purpose were more depressed than individuals who exercise for recreational purpose, but did not exhibit higher trait anxiety ratings. Thirdly, individuals who exercise for recreational purpose showed an association between ratings of compulsive exercise and depression but not with ratings of trait anxiety.

Discussion

Individuals who exercise for professional and recreational purpose may use it as a means for alleviating depression and anxiety although this small sample of recreational and professional sportsmen showed clinical levels of anxiety and depression that may require further clinical treatment.

Open access

Work addiction: An organizational behavior as well as an addictive behavior?

Commentary on: Ten myths about work addiction (Griffiths et al., 2018)

Authors: Oren Lior, Reizer Abira and Weinstein Aviv

In their critical review, Griffiths et al. (2018) discussed 10 myths in the study of work addiction, and addressed the need to conceptualize and investigate this area of research more carefully. In this commentary, we expand their arguments, suggesting that indeed some of the popular myths have solid evidence-based results in the organizational literature. Yet, some of the arguments are only indirectly related to previous organizational findings. Therefore, we emphasize the need to resolve the ambiguities of work addiction, as well as to develop a comprehensive and interdisciplinary understanding of the well-known phenomenon of addictive work behavior.

Open access

Background and aims

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exercise addiction, abnormal eating attitudes, anxiety, and depression among competitive and amateur athletes.

Methods

Participants were 100 athletes of mean age 28.3 years (18–62), of which there were 67 males and 35 females. The sample consisted of competitive and amateur athletes who participated in individual and group sports. They filled in the Exercise Addiction Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, a questionnaire assessing Eating Attitudes Test, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).

Results

Ratings of exercise addiction were positively correlated with BDI scores across the study sample. Exercise addiction ratings were associated with abnormal eating attitudes, but not with trait or state anxiety. Athletes engaging in individual sports scored marginally higher on depression scores than group athletes but there was no difference in depression scores between competitive and amateur athletes. Multiple regression analysis revealed that abnormal eating attitudes contributed significantly to ratings of exercise addiction and explained 7.7% of the variance. According to the Sobel test, the difference in the association between exercise addiction and eating disorder was significant. Therefore, body shape was a mediating factor between eating disorder and exercise addiction.

Discussion and conclusions

This study extends our preliminary findings of an association between exercise addiction and depression. Second, abnormal eating attitudes may explain most of the variance of exercise addiction. This is a further support for previous evidence of comorbidity between exercise addiction and eating disorders.

Open access

Background and aims

There is a previous evidence for impulsivity in individuals with Internet and Video Gaming Disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether Internet and video game addictions are associated with experiential delay discounting, risk-taking, and sensitivity to social rejection using computerized tasks and questionnaires.

Methods

Twenty participants (mean age 24, SD = 1.55) with high score on the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were compared with 20 participants (mean age 24.8, SD = 1.34) with low score on the POGQ. They performed on computerized Balloon Analog Risk Task and Experiential Delay discounting Task (EDT), and filled in the sensitivity to social rejection questionnaire.

Results

Participants with high POGQ scores had lower measures of delay discounting, higher measures of risk-taking, and higher measures of sensitivity to social rejection compared with participants with low POGQ scores.

Discussion

The results of this study support the previous evidence of risk-taking and provide new evidence for difficulties in delay discounting and sensitivity to social rejection among those who score high on Internet and video games.

Conclusions

The results suggest that Internet- and video game-addicted individuals seek immediate gratification and cannot wait for later reward. Furthermore, these individuals spend time in the virtual world, where they feel safe, and avoid social interactions presumably due to fears of social rejection.

Open access
Authors: Aviv Weinstein, Lichen Katz, Hila Eberhardt, Koby Cohen and Michel Lejoyeux

Open access
Authors: Yoni Zlot, Maya Goldstein, Koby Cohen and Aviv Weinstein

Background and aims

There is an increasing use of the Internet for dating and sexual purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of social anxiety and sensation seeking to ratings of sex addiction among those who use dating Internet sites.

Methods

A total of 279 participants (128 males and 151 females), with overall mean age being 25 years (SD = 2.75) and age range of 18–38, answered questionnaires on the Internet. Questionnaires included demographic details, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale, and Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST).

Results

The users of Internet-dating applications showed higher scores on the SAST than non-users. Second, participants who had low scores of sex addiction had lower social anxiety scores than the participants with high scores of sexual addiction. There was no difference in sensation-seeking scores between participants with low and high scores of sexual addiction.

Discussion and conclusions

The results of this study indicate that social anxiety rather than sensation seeking or gender is a major factor affecting the use of Internet-dating applications for obtaining sexual partners.

Open access

Background and aims

Sex addiction is characterized by excessive sexual activity on the Internet. We have investigated the contribution of the Big Five personality factors and sex differences to sex addiction.

Methods

A total of 267 participants (186 males and 81 females) were recruited from Internet sites that are used for finding sexual partners. Participants’ mean age was 31 years (SD = 9.8). They filled in the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST), the Big Five Index, and a demographic questionnaire.

Results

Men have shown higher scores of sex addiction than women (Cohen’s d = 0.40), they were more open to experiences (Cohen’s d = 0.42), and they were less neurotic than women (Cohen’s d = 0.67). Personality factors contributed significantly to the variance of sex addiction [F(5, 261) = 6.91, p < .001, R 2 = .11]. Openness to experience (β = 0.18) and neuroticism (β = 0.15) had positive correlations with SAST scores, whereas conscientiousness (β = −0.21) had a negative correlation with SAST scores, and personality traits explained 11.7% of the variance. A parallel moderation model of the effect of gender and personality traits on sex addiction explained 19.6% of the variance and it has indicated that conscientiousness had a negative correlation with SAST scores. Greater neuroticism was associated with higher scores of SAST in men but not in women.

Discussion and conclusions

This study confirmed higher scores of sex addiction among males compared to females. Personality factors together with gender contributed to 19.6% of the variance of ratings of sex addiction. Among men, neuroticism was associated with greater propensity for sex addiction.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) has been a long debated issue. While formerly the discussion was about whether to regard CSBD as a distinctive disorder, the current debate is dealing with the classification of this phenomenon. One of the prominent voices in this field considers CSBD as a behavioral addiction and proposes CSBD to be called and diagnosed as sexual addiction (SA). This present debate paper will review the existing evidence supporting this view and it will argue against it.

Results

We have found that a great deal of the current literature is anecdotal while empirical evidence is insufficient. First, the reports about the prevalence of CSBD are contradictory. Additionally, the field mainly suffers from inconsistent defining criteria of CSBD and a consensus which symptoms should be included. As a result, the empirical evidence that does exist is mostly about some symptoms individually and not on the disorder as a whole construct.

Conclusions

We conclude that currently, there is not enough data supporting CSBD as a behavioral addiction. Further research has to be done, examining CSBD phenomenology as a whole construct and based on a homogeneous criterion.

Open access
Authors: Gal Levi, Chen Cohen, Sigal Kaliche, Sagit Sharaabi, Koby Cohen, Dana Tzur-Bitan and Aviv Weinstein

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive sexual behavior is characterized by extensive sexual behavior and unsuccessful efforts to control excessive sexual behavior. The aim of the studies was to investigate compulsivity, anxiety and depression and impulsivity and problematic online sexual activities among adult males and females who use the Internet for finding sexual partners and using online pornography.

Methods

Study 1- 177 participants including 143 women M = 32.79 years (SD = 9.52), and 32 men M = 30.18 years (SD = 10.79). The Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Spielberger Trait-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T STAI-S) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Study 2- 139 participants including 98 women M = 24 years (SD = 5) and 41 men M = 25 years (SD = 4). The impulsivity questionnaire (BIS/BAS), Problematic online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex) and Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST).

Results

Study 1- Multiple regression analysis has indicated that a model which included BDI, Y-BOCS, and STAI scores contributed to the variance of sexual addiction rates, and explained 33.3% of the variance. Study 2- Multiple regression analysis indicated that BIS/BAS and s-IAT scores contributed to the variance of sexual addiction rates, and explained 33% of the variance.

Discussion and conclusions

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms contributed to sexual addiction among individuals who use the Internet for finding sexual partners. Impulsivity and problematic online sexual activity contributed to ratings of sex addiction. These studies support the argument that sex addiction lies on the impulsive-compulsive scale and could be classified as a behavioral addiction.

Open access

Including gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective

Commentary on: A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution (van Rooij et al., 2018)

Authors: Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Sophia Achab, Joël Billieux, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Natacha Carragher, Zsolt Demetrovics, Susumu Higuchi, Daniel L. King, Karl Mann, Marc Potenza, John B. Saunders, Max Abbott, Atul Ambekar, Osman Tolga Aricak, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Norharlina Bahar, Guilherme Borges, Matthias Brand, Elda Mei-Lo Chan, Thomas Chung, Jeff Derevensky, Ahmad El Kashef, Michael Farrell, Naomi A. Fineberg, Claudia Gandin, Douglas A. Gentile, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna E. Goudriaan, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Wei Hao, David C. Hodgins, Patrick Ip, Orsolya Király, Hae Kook Lee, Daria Kuss, Jeroen S. Lemmens, Jiang Long, Olatz Lopez-Fernandez, Satoko Mihara, Nancy M. Petry, Halley M. Pontes, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Florian Rehbein, Jürgen Rehm, Emanuele Scafato, Manoi Sharma, Daniel Spritzer, Dan J. Stein, Philip Tam, Aviv Weinstein, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Klaus Wölfling, Daniele Zullino and Vladimir Poznyak

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it.

Open access