The development of stress drives a host of biological responses that include the overproduction of a family of proteins named heat shock proteins (HSPs), because they were initially studied after heat exposure. HSPs are evolutionarily preserved proteins with a high degree of interspecies homology. HSPs are intracellular proteins that also have extracellular expression. The primary role of HSPs is to protect cell function by preventing irreversible protein damage and facilitating molecular traffic through intracellular pathways. However, in addition to their chaperone role, HSPs are immunodominant molecules that stimulate natural as well as disease-related immune reactivity. The latter may be a consequence of molecular mimicry, generating cross-reactivity between human HSPs and the HSPs of infectious agents. Autoimmune reactivity driven by HSPs could also be the result of enhancement of the immune response to peptides generated during cellular injury and of their role in the delivery of peptides to the major histocompatibility complex in antigen-presenting cells. In humans, HSPs have been found to participate in the pathogenesis of a large number of diseases. This review is focused on the role of HSPs in atherosclerosis and essential hypertension.
The state of trace concentrations of95Zr–95Nb and134Cs was studied at an initial pH>13 in an uranyl triperoxidate medium using the electromigration method. OH– ions governing the potential are adsorbed on the colloidal Nb(V)-hydroxide which leads to an increase in its negative electric charge; while95Zr did not move during the procedure. However, the electrophoretic mobility of the134Cs could be explained in terms of their agglomerations attributed to the interaction of Cs+ ions with water molecules to give larger aggregations.
The electrophoretic mobility of some radionuclides has been measured to understand its attractive or repulsive tendencies
towards other charged species in the medium. In this study, the chemical state of trace concentrations of88Y,103Ru,134Cs, and141Ce in the presence of UO
, as a dominant component, in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions (pH>13) was characterized.88Y and141Ce settled almost completely as colloidal species; whereas103Ru,134Cs, and uranium remained as ions. These results closely correlate a procedure for defining both the composition of the water
in contact with the fuel and the practical applicability of modified sorbents.
An effective method to minimize the presence of141Ce in the final hexahydrated uranyl nitrate recovery product has been obtained. This condition is considered as one prepurification stage in the recovery process of residual nonfissioned uranium in the production of99Mo of fission.