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Abstract  

The nuclear properties of99mTc radionuclide are ideal for organ imaging. Study of the technetium transport across supported liquid membranes has been performed to get data for its separation from other elements. Tri-n-octylamine diluted in xylene was used to constitute the liquid membranes, supported in polypropylene microporous films. Stripping on the product solution side was performed with dilute NaOH solutions. The effect of sulphuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in the feed on transport of99mTc as TcO 4 ions has been studied. The permeability of the given ions determined from kinetic activity data has been found to be in the order of PH2SO4>PHCl>PHNO3. The flux values have been calculated based on this permeability data. The increase in carrier concentration has shown an increase in flux and permeability values to a given optimum concentration. The increase in temperature has been found to reduce the transport of Tc ions. The optimum conditions for transport of99mTc for the given acid concentration have been determined. Mechanism of Tc ion transport has also been provided based on chemical reactions involved at the membrane interfaces and uptake of Tc ions by the membrane. MoO 4 2– ions do not permeate through membrane under optimum conditions of transport for TcO 4 2– ions from H2SO4 solution.

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grains of wheat (Triticum aestivumL. cv. Raj-3077) were soaked in 0, 10-5, 10-4or 10-3 M aqueous solutions of salicylic acid (SA) for 3, 6 or 9 h. The seedlings raised from grains pre-treated with 10-5 M SA possessed significantly higher leaf number, fresh and dry mass per plant, and nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities 30 and 40 days after sowing. However, 10-3 M SA reduced all the above-mentioned parameters.

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Summary

A simple, accurate, selective, precise, economical, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous analysis of mevastatin and pravastatin in fermentation broth has been established and validated. Compounds were separated on aluminium foil TLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254; the mobile phase was toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid 3:2:1 (v/v), which gave compact bands of mevastatin and pravastatin (RF 0.48 ± 0.02 and 0.31 ± 0.02, respectively). Detection at 237 nm resulted in r = 0.992 and 0.995 for mevastatin and r = 0.995 and 0.994 for pravastatin, for peak height and peak area, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification for mevastatin were 20.1 and 60.8 ng per band, and for pravastatin 19.2 and 58.3 ng per band, respectively. The method enabled effective quantification of mevastatin and pravastatin in the fermentation broth of Actinomadura macra and can therefore be used as a stability-indicating method for routine analysis of these compounds during bioconversion.

Open access

Abstract

The high potential for intercalations by water and various guest molecules is induced by the exchangeable cation inside Ca2+–Montmorillonite gallery. XRD peak for Mon at 2θ = 6.04° (d 001 = 1.462 nm) shows the structural effect on the clay gallery influenced by the intercalated water layers. Further increases in the gallery height are observed with the intercalation of octadecyl ammonium cations in OMON (d 001 = 1.840 nm) and ENR-50 matrix chains in CENR-50 (d 001 = 1.954 nm). DSC studies on the other hand reveal the thermal behaviors of intercalated molecules that are linked to the exchangeable cations. The endothermic of Ca2+–Montmorillonite (H Mon = 356.3 J/g) in low temperature range (30–100 °C) indicates the removal of free water and hydrogen bonded water molecules, while the endothermic around 150 °C is related to the induced skeletal layer of water within Ca2+–Montmorillonite. The OMON endothermic (H OMON = 47.0 J/g, T m = 36.94 °C) tells that cation exchange had modified the water structures and content inside the renewed clay. The intercalation of ENR-50 chains into OMON gallery reveals two endothermic with the T m1 and T m2 are at 86.24 and 113.80 °C, respectively. These T ms confirm that the alkyl chain segment on octadecyl ammonium cation occupy the OMON interlayer space.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
John B. Saunders
,
Wei Hao
,
Jiang Long
,
Daniel L. King
,
Karl Mann
,
Mira Fauth-Bühler
,
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
,
Henrietta Bowden-Jones
,
Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
,
Thomas Chung
,
Elda Chan
,
Norharlina Bahar
,
Sophia Achab
,
Hae Kook Lee
,
Marc Potenza
,
Nancy Petry
,
Daniel Spritzer
,
Atul Ambekar
,
Jeffrey Derevensky
,
Mark D. Griffiths
,
Halley M. Pontes
,
Daria Kuss
,
Susumu Higuchi
,
Satoko Mihara
,
Sawitri Assangangkornchai
,
Manoj Sharma
,
Ahmad El Kashef
,
Patrick Ip
,
Michael Farrell
,
Emanuele Scafato
,
Natacha Carragher
, and
Vladimir Poznyak

Online gaming has greatly increased in popularity in recent years, and with this has come a multiplicity of problems due to excessive involvement in gaming. Gaming disorder, both online and offline, has been defined for the first time in the draft of 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). National surveys have shown prevalence rates of gaming disorder/addiction of 10%–15% among young people in several Asian countries and of 1%–10% in their counterparts in some Western countries. Several diseases related to excessive gaming are now recognized, and clinics are being established to respond to individual, family, and community concerns, but many cases remain hidden. Gaming disorder shares many features with addictions due to psychoactive substances and with gambling disorder, and functional neuroimaging shows that similar areas of the brain are activated. Governments and health agencies worldwide are seeking for the effects of online gaming to be addressed, and for preventive approaches to be developed. Central to this effort is a need to delineate the nature of the problem, which is the purpose of the definitions in the draft of ICD-11.

Open access

Including gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective

Commentary on: A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution (van Rooij et al., 2018)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
,
Sophia Achab
,
Joël Billieux
,
Henrietta Bowden-Jones
,
Natacha Carragher
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
,
Susumu Higuchi
,
Daniel L. King
,
Karl Mann
,
Marc Potenza
,
John B. Saunders
,
Max Abbott
,
Atul Ambekar
,
Osman Tolga Aricak
,
Sawitri Assanangkornchai
,
Norharlina Bahar
,
Guilherme Borges
,
Matthias Brand
,
Elda Mei-Lo Chan
,
Thomas Chung
,
Jeff Derevensky
,
Ahmad El Kashef
,
Michael Farrell
,
Naomi A. Fineberg
,
Claudia Gandin
,
Douglas A. Gentile
,
Mark D. Griffiths
,
Anna E. Goudriaan
,
Marie Grall-Bronnec
,
Wei Hao
,
David C. Hodgins
,
Patrick Ip
,
Orsolya Király
,
Hae Kook Lee
,
Daria Kuss
,
Jeroen S. Lemmens
,
Jiang Long
,
Olatz Lopez-Fernandez
,
Satoko Mihara
,
Nancy M. Petry
,
Halley M. Pontes
,
Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
,
Florian Rehbein
,
Jürgen Rehm
,
Emanuele Scafato
,
Manoi Sharma
,
Daniel Spritzer
,
Dan J. Stein
,
Philip Tam
,
Aviv Weinstein
,
Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
,
Klaus Wölfling
,
Daniele Zullino
, and
Vladimir Poznyak

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it.

Open access