This article reviews the literature dealing with the effects of composition and quality of diet and feeding time on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs in ruminants. Studies have suggested that greater availability, and therefore improved anthelmintic activity, is possible through temporary feed restriction. It is also recommended that anthelmintic drugs should not be given to animals whilst they are maintained on large feed intakes, particularly of lush pasture that promotes rapid gastric transit, as this may reduce drug availability and anthelmintic efficacy. Generally, feeding animals low-quality fibrous diets reduces the passage rate of digesta and allows more time for absorption of several anthelmintic drugs and their metabolites from the gut. Some kinetic data of drugs given to animals on such diets may be slightly different, but this does not necessarily indicate alteration of the dosages of the anthelmintic drug. Nonetheless, due consideration should be given to anthelmintic dosages under various dietary regimes if optimum efficacy is to be achieved at all times.
The reactions of the 5-sulphosalicylate anion with VO(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Fe(II) and Mn(II) gave bis-(5-sulphosalicylato)-diaquo complexes. The structures of these complexes were predicted from elemental analyses and IR spectra. Their decompositions were studied by TG, DTG and DTA. Decomposition occurred in two steps: elimination of two water molecules, followed by decomposition of the dehydrated complex to give metal oxide as end-product. The thermal stability sequence for the complexes was
grains of wheat (Triticum aestivumL. cv. Raj-3077) were soaked in 0, 10-5, 10-4or 10-3 M aqueous solutions of salicylic acid (SA) for 3, 6 or 9 h. The seedlings raised from grains pre-treated with 10-5 M SA possessed significantly higher leaf number, fresh and dry mass per plant, and nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities 30 and 40 days after sowing. However, 10-3 M SA reduced all the above-mentioned parameters.
La2Mo2O9 (LMO) was synthesized at lower temperature 973 K (LT-phase) by ceramic route. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) scan of
LT-phase of LMO showed α→β transition at 843 K during heating and β→α conversion via a metastable γ-phase during cooling.
This was also confirmed by thermo-dilatometry and impedance spectroscopy. La2Mo1.95V0.05O9-δ (LMVO), La1.96Sr0.04Mo2O9-δ (LSMO) and La1.96Sr0.04Mo1.95V0.05O9-δ (LSMVO) were prepared in a similar way. These compounds exhibited α→β transition on heating with shift in transition temperature,
but the existence of γ-phase during cooling disappeared. Substitution increased the ionic conductivity of α-phase and reduced
that of β-phase.
Headspace analysis by means of sensor arrays has been successfully applied to a wide range of qualitative applications. In this study, a six element array of coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors was used for the headspace analysis of milk volatiles. The sensors were exposed to uncontaminated samples of milk and samples contaminated with Pseudomonas fragi (Ps. fragi) or Escherichia coli (E. coli). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyse the sensor array responses. No discrimination between uncontaminated milk samples and those contaminated with Ps. fragi was observed. This can be explained by Ps. fragi being a poor fermenter of milk. However, encouraging results were found for the discrimination between the milk samples and those contaminated with E. coli.
Quartz crystal microbalances have high mass sensitivities. Their application in gas sensing has been limited because they
are required to have both high selectivity and reversibility. Yet by the inherent nature of their operation these properties
are mutually exclusive. One approach to this problem is to use an array of quartz crystal microbalances. We have used an array
of six coated quartz crystal microbalances for the classification of methanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, hexane, heptane and
toluene. A novel classification scheme using fuzzy membership functions was found to be highly efficient.
A highly efficient continuous synthesis has been developed for telmisartan, the active ingredient in the antihypertensive drug, Micardis. This synthetic route employs a convergent strategy that requires no intermediate purifications or solvent exchanges. The key step in the reaction scheme is a Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between two functionalized benzimidazoles that is catalyzed by a solid-supported Pd catalyst. This flow-based approach utilizes a tubular reactor system coupled with a plug flow packed bed cartridge unit that produces telmisartan in an 81% isolated yield.
Knowledge of radioactivity levels in human diet is of particular concern for the estimation of possible radiological hazards
to human health. However, very few surveys of radioactivity in food have been conducted in Ghana. The natural radionuclides
226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K were measured in the foodstuffs using gamma ray spectrometry. All samples were found to contain high 40K content in the range 87.77–368.50 Bq kg−1. The maximum concentration of 228Th and 40K were found in cassava to be 14.93 ± 3.86 and 368.50 ± 19.20 Bq kg−1, respectively. The total annual committed effective dose was estimated to be 4.64 mSv. The daily intake of radionuclides
from food consumption reveals that cassava and plantain are the highest contributors, while millet is the lowest. The daily
radionuclide intake from the foodstuffs consumed by the general public was 411.32 Bq and the daily internal dose resulting
from ingestion of the radionuclides in the foodstuffs was 0.01 mSv. The radionuclide concentrations were comparable with those
reported from other countries.
Consensus in acknowledging compulsive buying-shopping disorder (CBSD) as a distinct diagnosis has been lacking. Before research in this area can be advanced, it is necessary to establish diagnostic criteria in order to facilitate field trials.
The study consisted of the following phases: (1) operationalization of a broad range of potential diagnostic criteria for CBSD, (2) two iterative rounds of data collection using the Delphi method, where consensus of potential diagnostic criteria for CBSD was reached by an international expert panel, and (3) interpretation of findings taking into account the degree of certainty amongst experts regarding their responses.
With respect to diagnostic criteria, there was clear expert consensus about inclusion of the persistent and recurrent experience of (a) intrusive and/or irresistible urges and/or impulses and/or cravings and/or preoccupations for buying/shopping; (b) diminished control over buying/shopping; (c) excessive purchasing of items without utilizing them for their intended purposes, (d) use of buying-shopping to regulate internal states; (e) negative consequences and impairment in important areas of functioning due to buying/shopping; (f) emotional and cognitive symptoms upon cessation of excessive buying/shopping; and (g) maintenance or escalation of dysfunctional buying/shopping behaviors despite negative consequences. Furthermore, support was found for a specifier related to the presence of excessive hoarding of purchased items.
The proposed diagnostic criteria can be used as the basis for the development of diagnostic interviews and measures of CBSD severity.