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Freezing tolerance is a quantitative trait, determined by many genes and also influenced by environmental factors. Thus, the development of reliable testing methods is a prerequisite both for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and for the identification of the genes behind the QTLs. Transformation methods proved to be effective in the direct verification of isolated genes involved in low temperature stress responses. In order to develop freezing tolerance, winter cereals must be adapted through a cold hardening period, which not only influences cold adaptation but also initiates the vernalization process necessary for flowering. Recent and ongoing studies are endeavouring to uncover the relationship between freezing tolerance and vernalization response at the genetic and molecular levels. This review aims to explain cereal freezing tolerance on the basis of recent discoveries in the areas outlined above.

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Mesenterialis actinomycosis

Mesenteric actinomycosis

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Adrienn Biró, László Ternyik, Katalin Heckel, István Bálint, and Zsolt Káposztás

Összefoglaló. Egy 46 éves nőbeteg esetét ismertetjük, akinél láz és görcsös hasi fájdalom miatt kezdődött kivizsgálás. A hasi ultrahangvizsgálat során a colon transversum területén megvastagodott falú konglomerátum volt látható. A kolonoszkópia során organikus eltérés nem igazolódott. A hasi komputertomográfiás vizsgálat retroperitonealis térfoglalást írt le, ezért onkológiai bizottság javaslata alapján műtét mellett döntöttünk. Egy hónappal a panaszok jelentkezése után megtörtént a műtét, melynek során úgy tűnt, hogy egy megközelítőleg 5 × 8 centiméteres, a vékonybélből kiinduló, a colon ascendenst és a sigmabelet is érintő, daganatnak imponáló terimét találtunk. Jobb oldali hemicolectomiát végeztünk, és reszekáltuk a sigmabélfal részletét. A szövettani vizsgálat malignitást nem igazolt, hanem a bélfallal összefüggést nem mutató, mesenterialis actinomycosist írt le. A hasi, mesenterialis actinomycosis ritka kórkép, mégis fontos, hogy gondoljunk rá mint differenciáldiagnosztikai lehetőségre, így a beteg a lehető leghamarabb megkaphatja a megfelelő kezelést. Esettanulmányunk bemutatásával a kórkép ismeretének fontosságára szeretnénk felhívni a figyelmet. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(3): 116–119.

Summary. We present the case of a 46-year-old female, who presented with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a thickened-walled conglomerate near the transvers colon. Colonoscopy did not show any organic abnormality. Abdominal computed tomography described a retroperitoneal mass, so we decided on surgery based on the multidisciplinary team decision. One month after the onset of symptoms, laparotomy was performed, and it seemed that we found an approximately 5 × 8 centimetre tumour attached to the small intestine involving the ascending and sigmoid colon. We performed right hemicolectomy and sigmoid colon wall resection. Histology result showed mesenteric actinomycosis with no connection to the intestinal wall, no malignancy was revealed. Although the abdominal, mesenteric actinomycosis is a rare disease, it is important to think of it as a differential diagnostic option, so the patient can get proper treatment and cured sooner. Our aim with presenting this case report is to highlight the significance of this disease. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(3): 116–119.

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Abstract

Based on the current literature, the link between Achilles tendon moment arm length and running economy is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the connection between Achilles tendon moment arm and running economy and the influence of Achilles tendon moment arm on the function of the plantarflexor muscle-tendon unit during running.

Ten male competitive marathon runners volunteered for this study. The participants ran on a treadmill at two running speeds: 3 and 3.5 m s−1. During running the oxygen consumption, lower leg kinematics, electrical activity of plantar flexor muscles, and fascicle behavior of the lateral gastrocnemius were measured simultaneously. On the second occasion, an MRI scan of the right leg was taken and used to estimate the Achilles tendon moment arm length.

There was a negative correlation between running economy and the body height normalized moment arm length at both selected speeds (r = −0.68, P = 0.014 and r = −0.70, P = 0.01). In addition, Achilles tendon moment arm length correlated with the amplitude of the ankle flexion at both speeds (r = −0.59, P = 0.03 and r = −0.60, P = 0.03) and with the electrical activity of the medial gastrocnemius muscle at 3 m s−1 speed (r = −0.62, P = 0.02). Our finding supports the concept that a longer moment arm could be beneficial for distance runners.

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Abstract

The Madaras brickyard section found at the northernmost fringe of the Backa loess plateau is one of the thickest and best-developed last glacial loess sequences of Central Europe. In the present work high-resolution magnetic susceptibility measurements (at 2 cm) were implemented on samples from the 10 m-section corresponding to a period between 29 and 11 KY cal b2K. One aim was to compare the findings with the ice core records of northern Greenland in order to establish a high-resolution paleoclimatic record for the last climatic cycle and with findings documented in other biotic and abiotic proxies so far. Our results revealed a strong variability of loess/paleosol formation during MIS 2. Millennial time-scale climatic events that characterize the North Atlantic during the last climatic cycle have been identified. From 29 ka up to the start of the LGM, the recorded MS values show a weak, negative correlation with the temperature proxy, and a weak positive correlation with the dust concentration of Greenland. A strong correlation was observed with the local paleotemperatures. Local climatic factors must have had a more prominent effect here on loess/paleosol development than the climate shifts over Greenland. During the LGM the same pattern is seen with a stronger correlation with the dust concentrations and a weaker correlation with the local temperature. Local climatic factors, plus dust accumulation, must have had a prominent influence on loess/paleosol development here. From the terminal part of the LGM a strong positive correlation of the MS values with the temperature proxy for Greenland accompanied by a strong negative correlation with the dust concentration values is observed. Correlation with local paleotemperatures is positive and moderate, strong. Here climate shifts over Greenland, as well as local endowments equally had an important role on the development of the MS signal.

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The effectiveness of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) to control root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and weeds was tested for the first time in Hungary in two consecutive protected cucumber crops with application made only before the first crop. The treatments were Accolade EC (DMDS 94.1%) at 400 l/ha applied by driplines, Nemathorin 10 G (fosthiazate) at 30 kg/ha, and an untreated control. During the first cucumber cycle vigour-index, yield, root-gall index, Meloidogyne juveniles in the soil and germination of weeds were evaluated. All considered parameters were significantly improved by using DMDS compared respectively to the chemical standard and untreated control: (i) vigour-index of 7.0, 4.3 and 3.6; (ii) cumulative yield/sample of 45.1 kg, 30.9 kg, and 16.6 kg; root-gall index (RGI) of 1.2, 4.9, and 5.9; (iii) M. incognita J2/25 g soil of 0.25, 48.5 and 78.0, and (iv) number of weed seedlings/sample in the 20–30 cm soil profile of 1.1, 2.6, and 4.2. During the second cucumber crop, only root-gall index was evaluated. Results showed that a single DMDS treatment applied before the first crop had a prolonged beneficial effect on the following crop. In the second crop cycle, root gall indices were 5.58, 9.18, and 8.44 for DMDS treated plots, chemical control and untreated control, respectively.

Open access

Appendicitis képében jelentkező akut promyelocytás leukaemia kiújulása allogén csontvelő-transzplantációt követően

Appendicitis mimicking relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Adrienn Biró, László Ternyik, Miklós Egyed, István Bálint, Veronika Czoma, Béla Kajtár, and Zsolt Káposztás

Összefoglaló. Az akut myeloid leukaemia ellátása primeren hematológiai feladat, relapsusa során is ritka a sebészeti szövődmény. Esettanulmányunkban egy 46 éves férfi beteget mutatunk be, akinél rutinvérvétel során felfedezett akut promyelocytás leukaemia miatt történt hematológiai kezelés. Alapbetegsége komplett molekuláris remisszióba jutott, ezt követően fenntartó kezeléseket kapott, de betegsége kiújult. Reindukciós kezelést követően fehérvérsejtszáma normalizálódott, de nem jutott molekuláris remisszióba. További kezelés után a férfi testvérétől gyűjtött őssejttel allogén csontvelő-transzplantáció történt. Közel egy éve molekuláris remisszióban volt a beteg, amikor jelentkeztek jobb alhasi panaszai neutropenia, a C-reaktív protein magas értéke és pozitív hasi ultrahang mellett. Akutan laparoszkópos módszerrel távolítottuk el a láthatóan gyulladt féregnyúlványt. A hisztológiai feldolgozás során az akut promyelocytás leukaemia manifesztációja igazolódott. Tekintettel arra, hogy közben csontvelői relapsus is kialakult, újabb reindukciós kezelés, és másik testvérétől vett őssejtekkel ismételten allogén csontvelő-transzplantáció történt. Az általunk ismert irodalomban appendicitis képében jelentkező akut promyelocytás leukaemia relapsusáról nem találtunk közleményt, ezért tartottuk esetünket publikációra érdemesnek. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(51): 2171–2174.

Summary. The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia is primarily hematological. Surgical complications are rare even during relapse. We present the case of a 46-year-old man who was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia after a routine blood test. Following hematological treatment, molecular remission was achieved, and he was on maintenance therapy, when his leukemia relapsed. He received re-induction treatment and his white blood cell count normalised, however, molecular remission was not reached. After further treatment, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was performed with stem cells collected from his brother. He developed right lower quadrant abdominal pain with neutropenia, elevated C-reactive protein and abdominal ultrasound report showed thickened appendix after nearly one year of molecular remission. We performed en emergency laparoscopic appendicectomy to remove the inflamed appendix. Histology confirmed acute promyelocytic leukemia manifestation in the appendix. Given the repeated bone marrow relapse, he received re-induction treatment and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation again with stem cells collected from his another brother. To the best of our knowledge, no previous report in the literature can be found of appendicitis mimicking relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia, thus, this case report holds merit for publication. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(51): 2171–2174.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Á. Tóth, E. Baka, Sz. Luzics, I. Bata-Vidács, I. Nagy, B. Bálint, R. Herczeg, F. Olasz, T. Wilk, T. Nagy, B. Kriszt, I. Nagy, and J. Kukolya

Thermobifidas are thermophilic, aerobic, lignocellulose decomposing actinomycetes. The Thermobifida genus includes four species: T. fusca, T. alba, T. cellulosilytica, and T. halotolerans. T. fusca YX is the far best characterized strain of this taxon and several cellulases and hemicellulases have been cloned from it for industrial purposes targeting paper industry, biofuel, and feed applications. Unfortunately, sequence data of such enzymes are almost exclusively restricted to this single species; however, we demonstrated earlier by zymography that other T. alba and T. cellulosilytica strains encode the same enzyme sets. Recently, the advances in whole genome sequencing by the use of next generation genomics platforms accelerated the selection process of valuable hydrolases from uncharacterized bacterial species for cloning purposes. For this purpose T. cellulosilytica TB100T type strain was chosen for de novo genome sequencing. We have assembled the genome of T. cellulosilytica strain TB100T into 168 contigs and 19 scaffolds, with reference length of 4 327 869 bps, 3 589 putative coding sequences, 53 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs. The analysis of the annotated genome revealed the existence of 27 putative hydrolases belonging to 14 different glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. The investigation of identified, cloned, and heterologously multiple cellulases, mannanases, xylanases, and amylases may result in industrial applications beside gaining useful basic research related information.

Open access
Imaging
Authors: Melinda Boussoussou, Borbála Vattay, Bálint Szilveszter, Márton Kolossváry, Judit Simon, Milán Vecsey-Nagy, Béla Merkely, and Pál Maurovich-Horvat

Abstract

In recent years, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has emerged as an accurate and safe non-invasive imaging modality in terms of detecting and excluding coronary artery disease (CAD). In the latest European Society of Cardiology Guidelines CCTA received Class I recommendation for the evaluation of patients with stable chest pain with low to intermediate clinical likelihood of CAD. Despite its high negative predictive value, the diagnostic performance of CCTA is limited by the relatively low specificity, especially in patients with heavily calcified lesions. The discrepancy between the degree of stenosis and ischemia is well established based on both invasive and non-invasive tests. The rapid evolution of computational flow dynamics has allowed the simulation of CCTA derived fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT), which improves specificity by combining anatomic and functional information regarding coronary atherosclerosis. FFR-CT has been extensively validated against invasively measured FFR as the reference standard. Due to recent technological advancements FFR-CT values can also be calculated locally, without offsite processing. Wall shear stress (WSS) and axial plaque stress (APS) are additional key hemodynamic elements of atherosclerotic plaque characteristics, which can also be measured using CCTA images. Current evidence suggests that WSS and APS are important hemodynamic features of adverse coronary plaques. CCTA based hemodynamic calculations could therefore improve prognostication and the management of patients with stable CAD.

Open access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: P. Török, E. Tóth, K. Tóth, O. Valkó, B. Deák, B. Kelbert, P. Bálint, Sz. Radócz, A. Kelemen, J. Sonkoly, T. Miglécz, G. Matus, A. Takács, V. A. Molnár, K. Süveges, L. Papp, L. Papp Jr., Z. Tóth, B. Baktay, G. Málnási Csizmadia, I. Oláh, E. Peti, J. Schellenberger, O. Szalkovszki, R. Kiss, and B. TÓthmérész

For understanding local and regional seed dispersal and plant establishment processes and for considering the ecotypes and other forms of specific variability, hard data of locally or regionally measured traits are necessary. We provided newly measured seed weight data of 193 taxa, out of which 24 taxa had not been represented in the SID, LEDA or BiolFlor databases. Our new measurements and formerly published data of locally collected seed weight records together covers over 70% of the Pannonian flora. However, there is still a considerable lack in seed weight data of taxonomically problematic genera, even though they are represented in the Pannonian flora with a relatively high number of species and/or subspecies (e.g. Sorbus, Rosa, Rubus, Crataegus and Hieracium). Our regional database contains very sporadic data on aquatic plants (including also numerous invasive species reported from Hungary and neighbouring countries) and some rare weeds distributed in the southwestern part of the country. These facts indicate the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.

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