The properties of the empirical density function,fn(x) = k/n(ξj+ − ξj-1+) ifξj-1+ < x ≤ ξ+ whereξj-1+ andξj+ are sample elements and there are exactlyk − 1 sample elements between them, are studied in that practical point of view how to choose a suitablek for a “good” estimation. A bound is given for the expected value of the absolute value of difference between the empirical and theoretical density functions.
Authors:A Kern, E Barabás, A Balog, Sz Burcsár, M Kiszelák, and B Vásárhelyi
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic inflammatory autoimmune disorder. Thrombotic events occur at a higher incidence among SLE patients. The investigation of thrombin generation (TG) with calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) test as a global hemostasis assay is applicable for the overall functional assessment of the hemostasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the hemostatic alterations observed in SLE by CAT assay. In this study, CAT parameters and basic coagulation parameters of SLE patients (n = 22) and healthy control subjects (n = 34) were compared. CAT area under the curve (i.e., endogenous thrombin potential) was lower than normal in SLE (807 vs. 1,159 nM*min, respectively), whereas other CAT parameters (peak, lag time, time to peak, and velocity index) and the basic coagulation tests were within the normal range. The presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies and the applied therapy was not associated with hemostasis parameters in SLE. We concluded that the reported high risk of thrombosis is not related to TG potential.
Authors:G. Ónodi, Gy. Kröel-Dulay, E. Kovács-Láng, P. Ódor, Z. Botta-Dukat, B. Lhotsky, S. Barabás, J. Garadnai, and M. Kertész
Aboveground plant biomass is one of the most important features of ecosystems, and it is widely used in ecosystem research. Non-destructive biomass estimation methods provide an important toolkit, because the destructive harvesting method is in many cases not feasible. However, only few studies have compared the accuracy of these methods in grassland communities to date. We studied the accuracy of three widely used methods for estimation of aboveground biomass: the visual cover estimation method, the point intercept method, and field spectroscopy. We applied them in three independent series of field samplings in semi-arid sand grasslands in Central Hungary. For each sampling method, we applied linear regression to assess the strength of the relationship between biomass proxies and actual aboveground biomass, and used coefficient of determination to evaluate accuracy. We found no evidence that the visual cover estimation, which is generally considered as a subjective method, was less accurate than point intercept method or field spectroscopy in estimating biomass. Based on our three datasets, we found that accuracy was lower for the point intercept method compared to the other two methods, while field spectroscopy and visual cover estimation were similar to each other in the semi-arid sand grassland community. We conclude that visual cover estimation can be as accurate for estimating aboveground biomass as other approaches, thus the choice amongst the methods should be based on additional pros and cons associated with each of the method and related to the specific research objective.