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Heat shock treatment of near isogenic barley lines induced susceptibility against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh). When barley lines were immersed into hot water (48–49 °C) for 20 seconds one day before inoculation with Bgh race A6, the heat treatment increased susceptibility in susceptible barley cv. Ingrid and in its near-isogenic barley lines carrying different effective resistance genes. Microscopic investigations indicated vigorous development of the pathogen not only on heat treated susceptible Ingrid and resistant Mla, but also on Mlg-resistant and even mlo-resistant lines. However, when longer heat stress was used, infection density increased gradually on the susceptible Ingrid leaves, and the 40–50 sec heat treatment induced the development of visible powdery mildew colonies even on mlo leaves. Heat stress significantly increased leakage of ions from leaf segments from all barley lines with or without specific resistance genes and caused a late decrease of SOD and a slight increase in CAT enzyme activities, which correlated with the slightly down-regulated levels of hydrogen peroxide in the heat treated barley leaves. Significant increase of RNase activities was found after heat stress, and there was a slight degradation of total DNA as a consequence of heat pretreatment in all barley lines.

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In the present work we aimed at comparing the effect of benzothiadiazole (BTH) treatment on defence reactions of sunflower plants to downy mildew and white rot diseases. BTH treatment resulted in reduced disease symptoms in biotrophic and in the early stage of the necrotrophic interactions. To get a better insight into the effect of BTH, changes in the activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes, as well as the expression of the host response-associated sunflower genes were examined in the plants. Inoculation with Plasmopara halstedii enhanced the polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activities, while inoculation with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum did it only at 4 dpi. However, most importantly, in each case extracts from BTH pretreated and inoculated plants showed the highest polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activities. Similarly, the accumulation of GST and PDF transcripts was detected following inoculations with both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, and again, BTH pre-treatment enhanced GST and defensine gene activities in the inoculated plants. We suggest that induction of enzyme activities, as well as of the elevated expression of GST, PDF and PR5 genes by BTH pre-treatment may be a significant part of the induced resistance of sunflower to downy mildew and white rot (white mold).

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One of the most important diseases of pea is caused by Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), which has a relatively wide host range. Since there are few varieties with resistance against the virus, and spraying insecticides is not very effective, the determination of the disease and the pathogen in the seeds is very important. Inoculum prepared from pea seeds showing typical virus symptoms caused very mild symptoms on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa, but several chlorotic/necrotic lesions on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Scarlet, and systemic symptoms with mosaic and curling of top leaves on bean cv. Maxidor. The detection of the virus was carried out by PCR using universal primers and virus sequence analysis. According to the phylogenetic analysis the PSbMV isolate identified in Hungary belongs to the pathotype P1 and associated with the cluster 2 isolates.

Open access

The effects of Bipolaris sorokiniana inoculation on accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), non-specific peroxidase (PX) and β -1,3-glucanase enzymes in leaves of differentially resistant spring barley and meadow fescue were investigated in this study. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated slightly in inoculated barley leaves 24 hours after inoculation, and its accumulation after 48 hours of pathogenesis remained week around sites of infection. In leaves of fescue, which is more resistant to B. sorokiniana , accumulation of H 2 O 2 was faster and stronger in comparison to barley. A slight increase in SOD activity was observed only in infected fescue. Catalase activity in infected barely leaves decreased significantly 48 hours after inoculation, while in fescue-infected plants CAT activity, following a slight decrease, remained similar to the control values. PX activity was considerable lower in inoculated barley leaves after 6 hours, but at 24 and 48 hours after inoculation its activity increased significantly compared to the control. In inoculated fescue leaves activity of PX was higher at 6 and 24 hours compared to the control, while at 48 hours PX activity was strongly inhibited. β -1,3-Glucanase activity in inoculated barley plants did not differ from that of the control, while in infected fescue leaves it increased significantly 48 hours after inoculation. Based on the results, we suggest that the strong accumulation of H 2 O 2 , changes in antioxidant levels, together with the significant increase of β -1,3-Glucanase activity in infected fescue leaves, plays an important role in fescue’s greater resistance to B. sorokiniana .

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
G Mészáros
,
Cs Orbán
,
A Kaposi
,
G Toldi
,
B Gyarmati
,
T Tulassay
, and
Prof. Barna Vásárhelyi

Mitochondrial functions have a major impact on T-cell functionality. In this study we characterized whether mitochondrial function in the neonatal T-cells differs from that in the adult T-cells during short T-cell activation. Methods: We used fow cytometry methods to test mitochondrial mass and to monitor mitochondrial Ca2+ levels, mitochondrial potential and superoxide generation in parallel with cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels during phythohaemagglutinine-induced activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells of 12 term neonates and 11 healthy adults. Results: Baseline mitochondrial mass of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was lower in the neonate than in the adult. In comparison with the adult, neonatal resting CD4+ T-cells had lower cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels and this was associated with normal activation induced Ca2+-response. During short-term activation cytoplasmic Ca2+-response was lower in neonatal than in adult CD8+ T-cells. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was increased in CD4+ neonatal T cells while it decreased in CD8+ T-cells. Mitochondrial depolarization was increased in CD4+ and decreased in CD8+ neonatal T-cells compared to adults. Superoxide generation was higher and equal in neonatal CD4+ and CD8+ cells, respectively, compared to the adult ones. Conclusion: Our data suggest that neonatal T-cells exhibit marked differences in mitochondrial function and superoxide generation compared to adult T-cells.

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Biotic and abiotic stresses induce increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through distinct pathways: pathogen infections activate specific ROS-producing enzymes (i.e. NADPH oxidase, cell wall peroxidases), which results in accumulation of cellular or intercellular ROS, such as superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. Abiotic stresses, on the other hand, cause elevated ROS production principally through an impairment of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport pathways. Also, these two types of stresses have diverse effects on the antioxidant system of the plant. Results of experiments studying the interaction of abiotic and biotic stresses largely depend on the degree of the applied abiotic stress treatment, the compatible or incompatible host-pathogen interaction and the timing of inoculation in relation to the timing of a preceding abiotic stress treatment.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides a detailed presentation of the estimated number of people in Hungary with eye disease and refractive errors by both sex and age.

Materials/methods

In the past 12 years, 168,522 people (54.1% women and 45.9% men) have been screened under Hungary's Comprehensive Health Protection Screening Programme (MÁESZ).

Results

The total number of people with eye disease in the adult Hungarian population (about 8 million people) is estimated to be 1,684,818, with women (1,078,026) outnumbering men (606,792). Eye diseases were found to be more common in older age groups, and more common in women than men in each age group. The estimated number of people with refractive errors in the Hungarian adult population is 5,005,095. The overall number of people with myopia in the adult Hungarian population is estimated to be 3,058,536, with roughly equal numbers of men and women. The majority of people with myopia (63.3%) are between 18 and 45 years of age.

Conclusions

The huge number of people in the Hungarian population affected by eye disease or refractive errors underscores the need to develop and implement an effective national strategy and specific programmes to prevent visual impairments.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Adam Šuluburić
,
Svetlana Milanović
,
Sanja Vranješ-Đurić
,
Ivan B. Jovanović
,
Tomislav Barna
,
Milica Stojić
,
Natalija Fratrić
,
Ottó Szenci
, and
Dragan Gvozdić

Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40–80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn’s Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28–35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Sz. Luzics
,
Á. Tóth
,
T. Barna
,
E. Szabó
,
I. Nagy
,
B. Horváth
,
I. Nagy
,
Z. Varecza
,
I. Bata-Vidács
, and
J. Kukolya

Abstract

Thermobifida alba is the mesophilic member of the Thermobifida genus, the genome and enzyme sets of which have not been described and published yet. Thermobifida strains are thermotolerant actinomycete, which possess wide sets of cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysing enzymes. Previously, three endomannanases (Man5ATh, Man5ATc, and Man5AThf) of thermobifidas were cloned and investigated, and hereby the endomannanase of T. alba DSM 43795 is described. All four endomannanases belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 5, their sizes are around 50–55 kDa. Their structure consists of a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module, while there is an interdomain linker region in-between consisting repetitive tetrapeptide motifs (eg.: PPTEPTD-Ta, PTDP-Tc, TEEP-Tf, DPGT-Th). The pH optima of Man5A enzymes from T. alba, Thermobifida halotolerans, Thermobifida cellulosilytica, and Thermobifida fusca are slightly different (6.5, 7.0, 7.5, and 8.0, respectively), however, the temperature optima of the enzymes were detected within a wider range of 65–75 °C. In this research, Man5ATa exhibited the lowest Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) (0.13 mM) on LBG-mannan substrate, while others shared similar kinetic parameters: 0.9–1.7 mM of KM. Despite the high sequence similarity of the investigated mannanases, they exhibit different temperature stability parameters. These different functional characteristics can be advantageous for industrial applications producing biologically active, oligomannan prebiotics under different conditions.

Open access

Az elhízás kezelése és megelőzése: táplálkozás, testmozgás, orvosi lehetőségek

Hazai szakmaközi ajánlás

Therapy and prevention of obesity: nutrition, physical activity and medical treatment

Recommendations of Hungarian professionals
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Imre Rurik
,
Péter Apor
,
Mária Barna
,
István Barna
,
J. Róbert Bedros
,
Péter Kempler
,
Éva Martos
,
Elemér Mohos
,
Gábor Pavlik
,
Gyula †Pados
,
József Pucsok
,
Gábor Simonyi
, and
György Bíró

Összefoglaló. Az elhízás és következményes megbetegedései fontos népegészségügyi problémát jelentenek hazánkban is. Kezelése komoly szakmai kihívás, ugyanakkor prevenciója eredményesebb lehet. Az elhízott betegekkel leggyakrabban találkozó háziorvosok, más szakorvosok és egészségügyi szakemberek részéről nagy igény van egy viszonylag rövid, áttekinthető, naprakész gyakorlatias útmutatóra. A különböző orvosszakmai társaságokban tevékenykedő, évtizedes szakmai tapasztalatokkal rendelkező szerzők összefoglalják tudományosan megalapozott, bizonyítékokon alapuló ismereteiket. Az elhízás kezelését lépcsőzetesen célszerű megkezdeni, előtte felmérve a beteg motivációját, általános állapotát, lehetőségeit. A szerzők leírják az energiaszükséglet meghatározásával, az étrenddel és a fizikai aktivitás megtervezésével kapcsolatos alapvető szempontokat. Felsorolják a hazánkban elérhető gyógyszereket és metabolikus sebészeti beavatkozásokat, az életmódi támogatás igényét. Az elhízás megelőzésében az élet első 1000 napjának táplálkozása, a későbbiekben a szülői minta a meghatározó. Sok kihasználatlan lehetősége van a háziorvosok, a lakóközösségek, az állami szervek koordinált együttműködésének, helyi kezdeményezéseknek. Az elhízás betegségként való meghatározása egyaránt igényel egészségpolitikai és kormányzati támogatást, az elhízottak ellátására szakosodott multidiszciplináris centrumok számának és kompetenciájának növelését. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(9): 323–335.

Summary. Obesity and related morbidities have a high public health impact in Hungary. The treatment is a challenge, but prevention seems more effective. General practitioners, other specialists and health care professionals who are treating obese persons require short, summarized, updated and practical guideline. Hungarian medical professionals of different scientific societies, having decennial practices, are summarizing their evidence-based knowledge. Obesity management requires step by step approach, evaluating previously the general health condition, motivation and options of the patients. The measurement of energy requirement, planning of diet and physical activities, available surgical methods and medications are described in detail with life style and mental support needed. The most important period in the prevention of obesity is the first 1000 days from conception. Other significant factors are the life style habits of the parents. Proper obesity prevention requires better coordination of primary health care, community and governmental activities. Obesity should be defined as morbidity, therefore stronger governmental support and more health-policy initiatives are needed, beside increasing number and developing of multidisciplinary centres. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(9): 323–335.

Open access