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Abstract

People who are particularly vulnerable to disease may reduce their likelihood of contracting illnesses during social interactions by having particularly strong aversions to individuals who appear ill. Consistent with this proposal, here we show that men and women who perceive themselves to be particularly vulnerable to disease have stronger preferences for apparent health in dynamic faces than individuals who perceive themselves to be relatively less vulnerable to disease. This relationship was independent of possible effects of general disgust sensitivity. Furthermore, perceived vulnerability to disease was not related to preferences for other facial cues that are attractive but do not necessarily signal an individual's current health (i.e. perceiver-directed smiles). Our findings complement previous studies implicating perceived vulnerability to disease in attitudes to out-group individuals and those with physical abnormalities by implicating perceived vulnerability to disease as a factor in face preferences. Collectively, our findings reveal a relatively domain-specific association between perceived vulnerability to disease and the strength of aversions to facial cues associated with illness. Additionally, they are further evidence that variation in attractiveness judgments is not arbitrary, but rather reflects potentially adaptive individual differences in face preferences.

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Abstract

Women demonstrate stronger preferences for femininity when assessing men's attractiveness for long-term rather than short-term relationships. One explanation of this effect is that the pro-social traits associated with femininity are particularly important for long-term relationships. This explanation has recently been challenged, however, following null findings for effects of pro-social attributions on women's preferences for feminine long-term partners. A limitation of these latter analyses is that they did not consider hormonal contraceptive use, which is a factor that previous studies suggest affects mate preferences. In our study, we found that women not using hormonal contraceptives demonstrated stronger preferences for femininity in men's faces when assessing men as long-term partners than when assessing men as short-term partners. Moreover, this effect was most pronounced among women who perceived feminine men as particularly trustworthy. No equivalent effects were observed among women using hormonal contraceptives. These findings support the proposal that the effect of relationship context on women's face preferences occurs, at least in part, because women value pro-social traits more in long-term than short-term partners. Additionally, our findings suggest that both hormonal contraceptive use and individual differences in perceptions of pro-social traits modulate the effect of relationship context on women's face preferences.

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Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors:
Sara Sadler
,
Meaghan M. Sebeika
,
Nicholas L. Kern
,
David E. Bell
,
Chloe A. Laverack
,
Devan J. Wilkins
,
Alexander R. Moeller
,
Benjamin C. Nicolaysen
,
Paige N. Kozlowski
,
Charlotte Wiles
,
Robert J. Tinder
, and
Graham B. Jones

Abstract

A facile and benign route to N-heterocycles, including triazoles and triazolopyrimidines, has been developed. Using continuous-flow microreactor technology, organic azides are prepared in situ and reacted with cyanoacetamide in a [3+2] cycloaddition to produce a variety of substituted 1,2,3-triazoles, which can be elaborated into useful building blocks. A benzyl-substituted triazole was further functionalized to an analog of the core structure of the antiplatelet agent Brilinta®. The methodology lends itself well to flow chemistry, where reaction volumes are minimized, heating and mixing are consistent, and the need for intermediate azide isolation bypassed. The scope of the process is wide, and the efficiency is high, suggesting this as a practical, green route for the production of triazolo-based heterocycles.

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Including gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective

Commentary on: A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution (van Rooij et al., 2018)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
,
Sophia Achab
,
Joël Billieux
,
Henrietta Bowden-Jones
,
Natacha Carragher
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
,
Susumu Higuchi
,
Daniel L. King
,
Karl Mann
,
Marc Potenza
,
John B. Saunders
,
Max Abbott
,
Atul Ambekar
,
Osman Tolga Aricak
,
Sawitri Assanangkornchai
,
Norharlina Bahar
,
Guilherme Borges
,
Matthias Brand
,
Elda Mei-Lo Chan
,
Thomas Chung
,
Jeff Derevensky
,
Ahmad El Kashef
,
Michael Farrell
,
Naomi A. Fineberg
,
Claudia Gandin
,
Douglas A. Gentile
,
Mark D. Griffiths
,
Anna E. Goudriaan
,
Marie Grall-Bronnec
,
Wei Hao
,
David C. Hodgins
,
Patrick Ip
,
Orsolya Király
,
Hae Kook Lee
,
Daria Kuss
,
Jeroen S. Lemmens
,
Jiang Long
,
Olatz Lopez-Fernandez
,
Satoko Mihara
,
Nancy M. Petry
,
Halley M. Pontes
,
Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
,
Florian Rehbein
,
Jürgen Rehm
,
Emanuele Scafato
,
Manoi Sharma
,
Daniel Spritzer
,
Dan J. Stein
,
Philip Tam
,
Aviv Weinstein
,
Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
,
Klaus Wölfling
,
Daniele Zullino
, and
Vladimir Poznyak

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it.

Open access