Pasteurella multocida B:2 is responsible for haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes, causing severe economic losses in the developing countries. In the present study, the ahpA gene of P. multocida B:2 (P52) was cloned, sequenced and compared with the previously reported ahpA gene sequence in P. multocida A:1, which is responsible for its haemolytic phenotype. E. coli DH5α cells were further transformed with recombinant plasmid carrying the ahpA gene from P. multocida B:2 (P52) but SDS-PAGE analysis failed to show the expression of haemolysin protein. Slight haemolysis was albeit observed in horse blood agar plates streaked with recombinant E. coli carrying the ahpA gene. Our study indicates that there is 99.6% similarity and 0.4% divergence between ahpA gene of P. multocida B:2 (P52) and P. multocida A:1, while membrane topology analysis has predicted that ahpA is an inner membrane protein with two strong hydrophobic regions at the N and C terminals. The presence of significant homology in ahpA sequence in A:1 and B:2 perhaps suggests a common mechanism of pathogenesis in different species of animals.
In this paper we describe a sensitive and reproducible reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with photodiode-array detection for isolation and quantification of the bioactive hydrophilic constituent 7-(1-O-β-d-galacturonide-4′-(1-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, 1, from the seeds of Cuminum cyminum. Compound 1 was separated isocratically on a C18 preparative column, in high purity, after removal of solvents. The purity and identity of the compound were established by use of LC-mass spectrometry and by spectroscopic techniques (1H and 13C NMR). The purity of 1 was also confirmed by HPTLC.
Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)–IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures positive for Borrelia showed that aggregates, but not spirochetes, expressed biofilm markers such as protective layers of different mucopolysaccharides, especially alginate. Atomic force microscopy revealed additional hallmark biofilm features of the Borrelia/alginate-positive aggregates such as inside channels and surface protrusions. In summary, this is the first study that demonstrates the presence of Borrelia biofilm in human infected skin tissues.