This paper describes a hypothesis on the origin of the members of the recently established adenovirus genus, Atadenovirus, invading cattle, sheep, deer, duck and poultry. Comparison of the phylogenetic trees of adenoviruses and their hosts suggests a very ancient but common origin for the atadenoviruses. The surprisingly large difference between these virus types and other adenoviruses infecting the same host can be easily understood by assuming their separate evolution in different hosts (e.g., in reptiles versus a coevolution with mammals and birds, respectively) followed by a later host switch.
Heat shock treatment of near isogenic barley lines induced susceptibility against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh). When barley lines were immersed into hot water (48–49 °C) for 20 seconds one day before inoculation with Bgh race A6, the heat treatment increased susceptibility in susceptible barley cv. Ingrid and in its near-isogenic barley lines carrying different effective resistance genes. Microscopic investigations indicated vigorous development of the pathogen not only on heat treated susceptible Ingrid and resistant Mla, but also on Mlg-resistant and even mlo-resistant lines. However, when longer heat stress was used, infection density increased gradually on the susceptible Ingrid leaves, and the 40–50 sec heat treatment induced the development of visible powdery mildew colonies even on mlo leaves. Heat stress significantly increased leakage of ions from leaf segments from all barley lines with or without specific resistance genes and caused a late decrease of SOD and a slight increase in CAT enzyme activities, which correlated with the slightly down-regulated levels of hydrogen peroxide in the heat treated barley leaves. Significant increase of RNase activities was found after heat stress, and there was a slight degradation of total DNA as a consequence of heat pretreatment in all barley lines.
Biotic and abiotic stresses induce
increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through distinct pathways:
pathogen infections activate specific ROS-producing enzymes (i.e. NADPH
oxidase, cell wall peroxidases), which results in accumulation of cellular or
intercellular ROS, such as superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. Abiotic stresses,
on the other hand, cause elevated ROS production principally through an
impairment of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport pathways. Also,
these two types of stresses have diverse effects on the antioxidant system of
the plant. Results of experiments studying the interaction of abiotic and
biotic stresses largely depend on the degree of the applied abiotic stress
treatment, the compatible or incompatible host-pathogen interaction and the
timing of inoculation in relation to the timing of a preceding abiotic stress
The authors report the data of the first survey on the incidence of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) in Hungary. A PCR method specific for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) was developed, which proved to be suitable for diagnostic purposes. PCR screening of organ samples from pigs suspected to be affected with PMWS or PDNS revealed the presence of PCV-2 in 80% of the cases. Six PCV-2 genomes from Hungarian isolates were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic comparison with all the available PCV-2 sequences showed that porcine circoviruses circulating in Hungary are more variable than in several other European countries. Two Hungarian strains clustered together with the Spanish strains forming a distinct group; two others fell in a common group with the French, UK, and Dutch strains, whereas another two strains showed the closest relationship to two of the three known German PCV-2 sequences.
The full sequence of the fiber gene and partial sequence of the putative 17 kD protein gene of bovine adenovirus-2 (BAdV-2) were determined. The size of the fiber gene of BAdV-2 proved to be 561 amino acids, of which the amino acids 37 to 385 form a typical shaft domain of 22 repetitive motifs. On the complementary strand, a gene homologous to the 17 kD protein coded in the E4 region of several human adenoviruses was found. The sequence analysis seems to confirm the presence of an intron in the sequenced part of the E4 region.
One of the plasmids present in a Haemophilus somnus strain isolated from nasal discharge of a cattle with respiratory disease was purified and cloned for DNA sequencing. The plasmid was found to be 1065 base pairs long with 39.2% G+C content, and showed no homology to any DNA sequenced so far. It has no capacity to code any protein longer than 43 residues. It is not clear yet if this plasmid codes Haemophilus somnus specific factors.
Epidemiological, pathological, serological and virological investigations are reported on turkey haemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) infection in Hungarian turkey flocks. The pathogenesis of infection in experimentally infected turkeys and chickens, as well as the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing method for epidemiological investigation and for the differentiation of vaccine and field strains of THEV was also studied. Since the first recognition of the disease in Hungary in the late 1970s, until recently the disease has been diagnosed sporadically in its mild form. In the last few years (2000–2005), however, the number of outbreaks and the severity of the disease increased (9–23 affected flocks/year). Most of the outbreaks occurred at the age of 6 to 8 weeks and was complicated with
infection. The antibody levels to THEV in turkey flocks gradually declined till 5–7 weeks of age, and then they increased sharply due to natural infection with THEV. The immune response to vaccination (at 5 weeks of age) showed no significant antibody level increase one week postvaccination, but four weeks later the antibody level reached high values and then remained at this high level. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test to detect turkey adenovirus A (TAdV-A) antigen and PCR methods for THEV-specific DNA gave similarly positive results if spleens with pathognomonic lesions were tested; however, PCR proved to be more sensitive in cases with less characteristic pathological lesions. Nucleotide sequence alignment of PCR products amplified from Hungarian field strains and the Domermuth vaccine strain and that of the published THEV hexon sequences in GenBank database revealed slight differences between the sequences.
At abattoirs and farms, 1248 sera were collected from animals representing 121 farms, and examined by complement fixation test using Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (MmmSC) antigen. All sera were negative except seven from four farms, giving ++ reactions in the serum dilution of 1:10. On retesting, these sera and additional 30 sera collected repeatedly in both farms gave negative results. In isolation attempts, 953 lung samples collected from slaughtered cattle at the same abattoirs, and 326 nasal swabs collected from 11 herds proved to be negative for the presence of MmmSC, but M. bovis was isolated frequently. In the small farms 23.95% of the animals had pleurisy and/or pneumonia while in the large herds 34.69% had lesions. DNA extracted from 50 nasal swabs and 430 lung samples was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using M. mycoides cluster-specific primers. DNA from further 325 lung samples was tested by the more specific M. mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony/large colony/capri specific primers and 196 samples by nested PCR specific for MmmSC. All gave negative results. The detection level of cluster-specific primers and the more specific primers was 33.4 pg of DNA, whereas that of nested PCR was 0.33 pg.