This paper describes a hypothesis on the origin of the members of the recently established adenovirus genus, Atadenovirus, invading cattle, sheep, deer, duck and poultry. Comparison of the phylogenetic trees of adenoviruses and their hosts suggests a very ancient but common origin for the atadenoviruses. The surprisingly large difference between these virus types and other adenoviruses infecting the same host can be easily understood by assuming their separate evolution in different hosts (e.g., in reptiles versus a coevolution with mammals and birds, respectively) followed by a later host switch.
This paper will focus on various interrelated, intermingled but often divergent processes and phenomena condensed around the fall of communism in Budapest regarding the spatial structure and development of society and economy. It will demonstrate and analyze major tendencies, such as urban decay, gentrification, suburbanization, emergence of polycentric spatial patterns, effects of globalization, and economic proceedings that have fundamentally altered the position and picture of Budapest and its metropolitan area. It will point out local characteristics as well as the effects of general trends of socio-spatial development on Budapest and its surroundings.
Building life cycle assessment is getting more and more attention within the topic of environmental impact caused by the built environment. Although more and more research focus on the embodied impact of buildings, the investigation of the operational energy use still needs attention. The majority of the building stock still does not comply with the nearly zero energy requirements. Also, in case of retrofitting, when most of the embodied impact is already spent on the existing structures (and so immutable), the importance of the operational energy rises. There are several methods to calculate the energy performance of buildings covering the range from simplified seasonal methods to detailed hourly energy simulations. Not only the accuracy of the calculations, but the computational time can be significantly different within the methods. The latter is especially important in case of optimization, when there is limited time to perform one calculation. Our research shows that the use of different calculation techniques can lead to different optima for environmental impacts in case of retrofitting. In this paper we compare these calculation methods with focus on computational time, accuracy and applicability to environmental optimization of buildings. We present the results in a case study of the retrofitting of a middle-sized apartment house in Hungary.
The aim of the paper is primarily to evaluate the heating energy demand of an industrial hall. In the study, we have made multidimensional dynamic whole building simulations for describing coupled heat and moisture behaviour and energy consumption of the building with different internal loads and compared to the calculated energy consumption of the building according to the Hungarian and Austrian regulations. The walls and roof structure of the industrial building were made with insulated panel systems, the plinth wall was built with monolithic reinforced concrete with 12 cm of XPS insulation. The floor is made of steel fibre reinforced concrete, where 10 cm XPS perimeter insulation was applied. After the calculations, we insulated the floor on the whole surface with 10 cm XPS and investigated the modified structure’s heating energy demand too. In the paper, we analyse the energy consumption of the original and modified industrial building according to the monthly and seasonal calculations and the whole building dynamic simulations and evaluated the differences. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of internal loads, thermal bridges on the simulations.
In recent years, the importance of nanomaterials in food science, medicine, etc. has been increasing quickly. Herein, organic and inorganic red selenium nanoparticles synthesised by the reduction of sodium selenite with chemical and biological reducing agents. Grey hexagonal form in aqueous and powder was assembled at a high temperature of 85 °C for 10 min. Also, selenium enriched yogurt powder was made that contained about 2,000 mg kg−1 selenium, 93.8% of which is in nano form with a size of 50–500 nm. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by Dynamic Light Scattering Particle Size Analyzer (DLS), X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The prepared SeNPs could be promising additive for a wide range of applications.
Aircraft manufacturing industry has developed dynamically in the last decades. Reinforced polymers have become the most dominant raw materials, while the recycling rate of the generated industrial waste has also increased. The greatest aircraft manufacturers have integrated environmental protection in their production process, while defining clear environmental goals for the future. In this study, we have analyzed the environmental considerations of the aircraft manufacturing industry through the examples of Boeing and Airbus companies. Our goal was to define the possible environmental impacts of the aircraft industry, focusing on raw material usage and waste recycling.
The turbulence intensity is an important feature of the turbulent airflow and draught sensation in ventilated rooms. The turbulence is often measured with hot-wire (in fluid mechanics applications) and hot-sphere sensors (in indoor air comfort investigations). In this paper the turbulence was measured with hot-wire and hot-sphere sensors in a full-scale single office room based on air speed measurements. Isothermal air injection was applied and the measurements were conducted on eight different inlet volume flow rates. The two applied sensors resulted two independent samples, which were evaluated with different statistical methods. The results showed that there was not significant difference between the standard deviation and average of the measured samples. Thus, the two sensors statistically gave the same results on probability level 95%.
The referred international standards suggest an average turbulence intensity 40% for draught comfort design in mixing ventilation. The results showed that most of the measured turbulence intensities were less than the recommended standard turbulence intensity.
Canopy height, leaf area (LA), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC) data of 210 species of the Hungarian flora resulting from our field sampling are presented in this data paper.
The use of polypropylene materials in industry for food packaging is increasing. The presence of additives in the polymer matrix enables the modification or improvement of the properties and performance of the polymer, but these additives are potential risk for human health. In this context, an efficient analytical method for the quantitative determination of three antioxidants (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), dibutylhydroxyphenylpropionic acid stearyl ester (Irganox 1076), and tns-(2.4-di-tert-butyl)-phosphite (Irgafos 168)) and five ultraviolet stabilizers (2-(2′-hydroxy-5′-methylphenyl) (UV-P), (2′-hydroxy-3′-tert-5′-methylphenyl)-5-chloroben zotriazole (UV-326), 2-(2′-hydroxy-3′,5′-di-tert-butylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole (UV-327), 2-(2H-benzotriazol- 2-yl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol(UV-329), and 2-hydroxy-4(octyloxy) benzophenone (UV-531)) in polypropylene food packaging and food simulants by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. Parameters affecting the efficiency in the process such as extraction and chromatographic condition were studied in order to determine operating conditions. The analytical method showed good linearity, presenting correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.9977) for all additives. The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.03 and 0.30 μg mL−1 and between 0.10 and 1.00 μg mL−1 for eight analytes, respectively. Average spiked recoveries in blank polypropylene packaging and food simulants were in the range of 80.4–99.5% and 75.2–106.7%, with relative standard deviations in the range of 0.9–9.1% and 0.2–9.8%. Dissolving the polypropylene food packaging with toluene and precipitating by methanol was demonstrated more effective than ultrasonic extract with acetonitrile or dichloromethane for extracting the additives. The method was successfully applied to commercial polypropylene packaging determination, Irgafos 168 and UV-P were frequently found in six commercial polypropylene films, and the content ranged from 166.47 ± 5.11 to 845.27 ± 29.31 μg g−1 and 2.10 ± 0.29 to 19.23 ± 1.26 μg g−1, respectively.