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The paper includes the description and complementation of a building inscription found in the late Roman cemetery of Intercisa in 2003. The inscription consists of 3 lines and on the basis of the imperial epithet (Antoniniana) in the last line it can be dated to the age of Caracalla (the name of the emperor in the first line and his titulature in the second was complemented accordingly), whereas the third line contained the name of the garrison: cohors I Aurelia Antonina milliaria Hemesenorum sagittaria equitata. The provenance of the inscription is secondary, thus we cannot determine the building where the inscription was originally erected.

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The multiplication and characterisation of genetic stocks originating under very different ecological conditions is a problem constantly encountered in gene bank research. However, the major components of the original environment, such as temperature, light and humidity, can be reproduced under artificial conditions in the phytotron. The gradient, or inhomogeneous, chamber available in the phytotron of the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, makes it possible to elaborate plant growth programmes optimised for the various developmental phases of each population in a single step. In this chamber gradients of two extremely important environmental factors, temperature and illumination, can be simultaneously programmed, thus allowing the optimum light × heat combinations to be identified. However, the use of complete inhomogeneity (light × heat) makes it extremely difficult to evaluate the experimental results, since biometric methods based on traditional statistics are unable to handle this situation. It is thus essential to find a method suitable for the comparative analysis of continual variables (Okada et al., 2000). The present paper reports on the first phase in the development of a plant growth programme for emmer, based on investigations made on two gene bank accessions of winter Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell. (MvGB 301 and MvGB 304). In the gradient chamber study the accumulation of dry biomass in three-week-old plants was investigated as a function of temperature and light intensity. The results suggest that a temperature of 10-12°C combined with low or moderate light intensity is optimum for the germination and initial development (0-4 weeks) of emmer. These conditions also induced good tillering, which is extremely important, especially for gene bank accessions where the possibility of seed multiplication and field cultivation is limited.

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In the course of gene bank research, problems frequently arise when valuable genetic materials have to be multiplied in an environment where the climatic conditions are quite different from those in its original habitat. In recently commenced experiments on the raising of emmer, the heading dates of two genotypes originating from different sources (MvGB 301 and MvGB 304) were investigated in a gradient growth chamber in the Martonvásár phytotron. This chamber allows precise information on the optimum temperature and light requirements of plants in different developmental stages to be obtained during the growth of a single generation. The data indicated that MvGB 301 headed considerably later than MvGB 304 at all temperature levels, but both varieties headed normally even at a constant very low temperature of 8°C. It was found that the light intensity had no influence on the heading dates of the two varieties.

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As a consequence of the recent spread of organic crop production, there is an increasing demand on the market for foodstuffs and food raw materials of special quality. New interest is being evinced in old cereal species that have been ignored for a long period, such as einkorn and emmer. Their production is hindered, however, by the fact that no breeding has been carried out on these species for long decades, and the landraces currently available are not suited to modern cultivation conditions. The breeding of varieties with the required habit is hindered by the lack of information on the plant structure of the various landraces and on the environmental dependence and inheritance of the characters that determine plant structure. Earlier studies suggest that inhomogeneous environmental systems can be used to identify the temperature and light conditions under which the phenotypic differences responsible for plant structure are the greatest, thus allowing the inheritance of these traits to be investigated. When two emmer landraces originating from diverse climatic regions (MvGB 301 and MvGB 304) were grown in a gradient phytotron chamber, it was found that relatively higher temperatures were more suitable for pinpointing differences in plant height, as the difference between the two varieties decreased parallel to a drop in temperature. Within the temperature range investigated it is advisable to choose the taller variety as basic breeding stock for organic variety development, as its height is closer to the ideotype for organic varieties. The length of the last internode in MvGB 301 is independent of changes in temperature, indicating that the phenotype is stable for this trait. The results clearly demonstrate that it is possible to find types of emmer which are morphologically adapted to the requirements of organic farming and have a plant structure relatively little affected by the genotype × environment interaction.

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In this case study a fully symbolic design and modeling method are presented for blood glucose control of diabetic patients under intensive care using Mathematica. The analysis is based on a modified two-compartment model proposed by Bergman et al. (2). The applied feedback control law decoupling even the nonlinear model leads to a fully symbolic solution of the closed loop equations. The effectivity of the applied symbolic procedures being mostly built-in the new version of Control System Professional Suite (CSPS) Application of Mathematica have been demonstrated for controller design in case of a glucose control for treatment of diabetes mellitus and also presented for a numerical situation described in Juhász (8). The results are in good agreement with the earlier presented symbolic-numeric analysis by Benyó et al. (1).

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Private pension funds were thought to be an important pillar of old-age provision when they were introduced throughout (Emerging) Europe. As different as these funds are in different countries with regards to their regulation, their ownership structure and operation, none were immune to the sub-prime led financial crisis. The Hungarian private pension funds are unique amongst the defined contribution (DC) funds. With their decade old recent history, they are maturing to the payout period in a few years’ time; however, their demise appears ever more realistic by means of political decision. This makes uncovering their investment policy during the crises very timely. Examining such a period is of importance in shedding light on the behaviour of traditional financial concepts in periods of stress. In this paper, we assess the optimality of diversification, hedging and short sales decision possibilities of the Hungarian pension funds in the equity investments environment. Was the net asset value (NAV) erosion suffered by the Hungarian private pension funds a result of their investment decision? We examine this question of diversification through a hypothetical simulation of model investment portfolios. Our results show that international diversification yields better risk-adjusted returns only in case of perfect hindsight of future market movements. The high correlation of the stock indices globally in times of crises limits the benefits of diversification.

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The ochratoxin A (OTA) content of urine samples from 88 healthy humans living at five settlements in three counties of Hungary was determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). OTA was detected in 61% of the samples in an average concentration of 0.013 ng/ml (range: 0.006-0.065 ng/ml). OTA concentrations measured in urine samples from men and women were not significantly different. The OTA concentration of samples from Heves county was significantly (t-test; p < 0.003) higher than that of samples from Hajdú-Bihar and Somogy counties. The regional differences in OTA concentration of urine samples indicate regional differences in the OTA exposure of the human population. Further studies are necessary to determine the cause of the regional differences in the OTA intake. The studies allow us to conclude that the OTA intake of the majority of the Hungarian population is low (< 1 ng/kg of body weight per day) but a certain part of the rural population may take up higher levels of OTA.

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