The title compound 3,3-dinitroazetidinium (DNAZ) 3,5-dinitrosalicylate (3,5-DNSA) was prepared and the crystal structure has
been determined by a four-circle X-ray diffractometer. The thermal behavior of the title compound was studied under a non-isothermal
condition by DSC and TG/DTG techniques. The kinetic parameters were obtained from analysis of the TG curves by Kissinger method,
Ozawa method, the differential method and the integral method. The kinetic model function in differential form and the value
of Ea and A of the decomposition reaction of the title compound are f(α)=4α3/4, 130.83 kJ mol−1 and 1013.80s−1, respectively. The critical temperature of thermal explosion of the title compound is 147.55 °C. The values of ΔS≠, ΔH≠ and ΔG≠ of this reaction are −1.35 J mol−1 K−1, 122.42 and 122.97 kJ mol−1, respectively. The specific heat capacity of the title compound was determined with a continuous Cp mode of mircocalorimeter. Using the relationship between Cp and T and the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initiation to thermal explosion (adiabatic
time-to-explosion) was obtained.
Authors:B. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Li, B. Ma, F. Gan, Z. Zhang, H. Cheng, and F. Yang
External-beam PIXE was used for the non-destructive analysis of early glasses unearthed from the tombs of Warring States (475–221BC) and Han Dynasty (BC 206–AD 220) in south China. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO—BaO—SiO2 system and K2O—SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had exactly the same recipe. The source of the K2O flux and the correlation between PbO and BaO are discussed. Some archeological information is revealed.
Authors:M.Â. de B. C. Menezes, C. de V. S. Sabino, A. Amaral, and E. Maia
The k0 parametric neutron activation analysis has been applied since 1995 in the Radiochemical Sector/CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Several certified reference materials were studied with the aim of analysing biological samples. This work is related to an IAEA co-ordinated research project whose goal is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases. It has been conducted by CDTN and government departments of health. The hair samples as bioindicators were donated by galvanising factory workers in Belo Horizonte. This city and surrounding area are important industrial centres and that industry is responsible for the majority of patients who look for medical assistance because of metal contamination. The Al, Co, Cu, Cr, La, Mn, Sb and V concentrations determined in the workers' samples suggest endogenous contamination.
Authors:Y. Zhang, K. Ma, M. Anand, W. Ye, and B. Fu
Alpha, beta, and gamma diversity are three fundamental biodiversity components in ecology, but most studies focus only on the scale issues of the alpha or gamma diversity component. The beta diversity component, which incorporates both alpha and gamma diversity components, is ideal for studying scale issues of diversity. We explore the scale dependency of beta diversity and scale relationship, both theoretically as well as by application to actual data sets. Our results showed that a power law exists for beta diversity-area (spatial grain or spatial extent) relationships, and that the parameters of the power law are dependent on the grain and extent for which the data are defined. Coarse grain size generates a steeper slope (scaling exponent z) with lower values of intercept (c), while a larger extent results in a reverse trend in both parameters. We also found that, for a given grain (with varying extent) or a given extent (with varying grain) the two parameters are themselves related by power laws. These findings are important because they are the first to simultaneously relate the various components of scale and diversity in a unified manner.
Authors:C. N. Manju, B. Prajitha, R. Prakashkumar, and W. Z. Ma
A new species similar to Bryocrumia vivicolor, the only known species in the genus Bryocrumia, is described as Bryocrumia malabarica spec. nova from the Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats of Kerala in Peninsular India. It resembles Homalia in external appearance and was collected in a rheophytic habitat along a stream channel in the evergreen forest. The new species is characterised by closely arranged leaves with distinct tricostate, ovate-rounded to truncate leaves, upper margin of leaf rounded with fine serrations and an inconspicuous central strand in stem cross section.
Authors:B. Yan, H. X. Ma, N. N. Zhao, T. Mai, J. R. Song, F. Q. Zhao, and R. Z. Hu
As N-2′,4′-dinitrophenyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine (DNPDNAZ) is an important derivative of 3,3-dinitroazetidine, its thermal behavior was studied under 0.1 and 2 MPa by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. The results of this study show that there are one melting process and two exothermic decomposition processes. Its kinetic parameters of the intense exothermic decomposition process were obtained from the analysis of the DSC curves. The activation energy and the mechanism function under 0.1 MPa are 167.26 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively, and the said parameters under 2 MPa are 169.30 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively. The specific heat capacity of DNPDNAZ was determined using a continuous Cp mode of micro-calorimeter. Using the relationship between Cp and T with the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initialization to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion, tTIAD), the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (TSADT), thermal ignition temperature (TTIT), critical temperatures of thermal explosion (Tb), and half-life (t1/2) were obtained to evaluate its thermal safety under different pressures.
Authors:H. X. Ma, B. Yan, Y. H. Ren, Y. Hu, Y. L. Guan, F. Q. Zhao, J. R. Song, and R. Z. Hu
3,3-Dinitroazetidinium (DNAZ) salt of perchloric acid (DNAZ·HClO4) was prepared, it was characterized by the elemental analysis, IR, NMR, and a X-ray diffractometer. The thermal behavior and decomposition reaction kinetics of DNAZ·HClO4 were investigated under a non-isothermal condition by DSC and TG/DTG techniques. The results show that the thermal decomposition process of DNAZ·HClO4 has two mass loss stages. The kinetic model function in differential form, the value of apparent activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (A) of the exothermic decomposition reaction of DNAZ·HClO4 are f(α) = (1 − α)−1/2, 156.47 kJ mol−1, and 1015.12 s−1, respectively. The critical temperature of thermal explosion is 188.5 °C. The values of ΔS≠, ΔH≠, and ΔG≠of this reaction are 42.26 J mol−1 K−1, 154.44 kJ mol−1, and 135.42 kJ mol−1, respectively. The specific heat capacity of DNAZ·HClO4 was determined with a continuous Cp mode of microcalorimeter. Using the relationship between Cp and T and the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initiation to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion) was evaluated as 14.2 s.