The primary purpose of these researches was to optimize single-cell protein (SCP) production process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCAIM Y.00200 and Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 4908 strain, and then to analyse the changes in yield of single-cell protein final product using vitamin supplementation. To determine these values, the total sugar content of the fermentation medium, and the protein content of the yeast was determined. During our work, a particular attention was paid to the change of sugar content and yeast protein quantity. Besides, yield (Yx/s) values, typical of the whole fermentation, were also measured. Protein yield, as the final product of fermentation, featured the efficiency of our work. The results of our optimized trial settings that were considered as control, using S. cerevisiae NCAIM Y.00200 and K. marxianus DSM 4908 strains, were compared with the results of vitamin-supplemented fermentation processes. On this basis, we can say that during our trials vitamin supplementation did not influence the final product yield of processes. The counted protein yields during fermentation were between 0.4–0.7 g g−1.
Authors:S. Dulai, I. Molnár, B. Haló and M. Molnár-Láng
The photosynthetic responses induced by NaCl were investigated in the 7H Asakaze komugi/Manas wheat/barley addition line developed in the Agricultural Research Institute, Martonvásár, Hungary, in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Asakaze komugi (Akom) and wheat line Martonvásári 9 kr1 (Mv9kr1) and in the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Manas. An increase in the NaCl concentration of the nutrient solution to 200 mmol L−1 resulted in considerable stomatal closure and a decreased net CO2 assimilation rate (A) in the wheat genotypes, while the changes in these parameters were less significant for barley and the 7H addition line. Parallel with this, a relatively high non-stomatal limitation (Lm) of A was observed in wheat genotypes, which was not significant in Manas or the wheat-barley addition line at this level of salt stress. At severe stress (300 mM L−1 NaCl concentration) A and stomatal conductance were strongly inhibited in all the genotypes examined; however, Lm was less significant in the addition line and its parental wheat genotype. These preliminary results suggest that the 7H Akom/Manas addition line might be a good candidate for improving the salt tolerance of wheat in the future, and encourage further detailed physiological analysis of this addition line.
The safety of wheat production in Hungary requires the propagation of droughttolerant cultivars because of the regular occurrence of water deficiency. Hybridization between related species makes it possible to transfer desirable traits from one species to another. Introgression lines developed from wheat/barley hybrids were investigated together with the parental wheat and barley cultivars to determine how the added barley chromosome (segment) influences drought tolerance in wheat. The plants were grown in the field at the UP Georgikon Faculty, Keszthely. Sowing and harvest were done by hand. Half the length of the 12 m rows was covered with a plastic rain shelter on 2
April (EC: 30–31) to protect the plants from rain, resulting in a 163 mm difference in water supplies between the control (not covered) and stressed (covered) treatments. Data were obtained for anthesis and maturity date, plant height, root/shoot ratio, leaf water potential, grain yield and grain yield components. The plants adapted to water deficiency by increasing the root/shoot ratio and decreasing the water potential and the duration of grain filling. The grain yield was reduced by 12%, averaged over the genotypes, mainly due to a decrease in the number of spikes per plant.
Periodicity of pheromone titer in female moths, modulated by various factors (age, photoperiod, temperature), has been reported for a number species, however, comparative studies on pheromone strains of those species where pheromone polymorphism is known to occur has so far scarcely been studied.In this study, the rhythm and age dependence of calling behavior as well as of the titer of the respective main sex pheromone components, and timing and frequency of mating within E-and Z-strains of European corn borer (ECB),
Hbn. (Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae) were compared during scotophase, under laboratory conditions (18/6 hours photoregime, 26 °C).Very similar trends were fund in both strains in the diel fluctuation of both calling behavior and pheromone titer within the scotophase, as well as its age dependence, and also in timing and mating frequency. The titer of the respective main pheromone component gradually increased during the scotophase. Highest titers were found in freshly emerged females, however even 6-day-old females produced roughly half amounts. Freshly emerged females of both strains were ready to mate with males of their own strain, however, the percentage of matings were higher in 1–3-day-old age cohorts. Differences between strains was found in the total amount of the respective main pheromone components in the gland. The average amount of (
)11-tetradecenyl acetate extracted from the ovipositor of Z-strain females 10 min. before the end of the scotophase was 2.17 ng / female equivalent, whereas the corresponding value of (
)11-tetradecenyl acetate for E-strain females was 8.25 ng / female equivalent. Moreover, E-strain females tended to start calling somewhat earlier, and the percentages of calling females was higher during the peak calling period than that of the Z-strain. Significance of these findings in characterizing the strains are discussed.
Authors:M. Constantinovits, F. Sipos, B. Molnár, Zs Tulassay and Györgyi Műzes
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is supposed to play an integral role in the organization of colonic repair mechanisms. Majority of the GALT is composed of isolated and aggregated lymphoid follicles distributed throughout the intestines. These lymphoid follicles, including Peyer’s patches of the small, and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) of both the small and large intestines, are composed of a specialised follicle associated epithelium overlying a subepithelial dome containing numerous dendritic cells, macrophages, T and B cells. Within inflammatory conditions the number, the diameter and the density of ILFs are increasing. Follicles are involved not just in immune surveillance, but their presence is also indispensable for normal colonic mucosal regeneration. Regarding mucosal repair the relation of ILFs to bone marrow derived stem cells, follicular dendritic cells, subepithelial myofibroblasts and crypt formations, and the putative organizer role of ILFs have not been clarified yet.
Authors:B. Kucska, T. Feledi, Á. Adorján and T. Molnár
This study investigated the effects of three different commercial diets on the growth, feed utilization, and product quality of pike (Esox lucius). The first diet had low lipid (12%) and low protein (37%) (diet A) content, the second diet had low lipid (12%) and high protein (52%) content (diet B), the third diet had higher lipid concentration (15%) and high protein content (52%) (diet C). Two hundred and seven pike were stocked in an experimental RAS (Recirculating Aquaculture System) and were fed ad libitum for the duration of the nine week trial. Specific growth rates, feed conversion rates, protein utilization, as well as body composition and somatic indices were calculated. Fish fed with diets B and C had significantly better SGR (Specific Growth Rate) and FCR (Feed Conversion Rate) than fish fed with diet A. The higher dietary lipid concentration does not cause significantly better protein utilization. Moreover, it had a negative effect on the product quality by increasing the body lipid concentration and the visceral fat deposition.
Authors:B. Czúcz, Zs. Molnár, F. Horváth and Z. Botta-Dukát
In this paper we present an implementation of the natural capital index (NCI), a highly aggregated policy-relevant biodiversity indicator for Hungary, based on the MÉTA database, a detailed field-based vegetation database with a habitat quality attribute. To this end, we introduce two different weighting schemes for the field-estimated MÉTA values, both rooted in the concept of ecosystem services: a linear “equal steps” (NCI
) and an exponential (NCI
) weighting scheme. The natural capital index of Hungary and its physical geographical regions are calculated and presented from both aspects. The national NCI
is 9.9% (indicating an overall 90% loss in the availability of the major supporting ecosystem services), and NCI
is 3.2% (indicating an even greater degree of loss in terms of the conservation of rare species). The geographical regions of Hungary exhibit considerable spatial variation, which reveals important information on their basic characteristics (e.g. agricultural potential) and land use history. As NCI can be calculated on any spatial scales from local to national, this indicator may become a useful tool for policy development and evaluation purposes, including environmental impact assessments (EIA) and strategic environmental assessments (SEI). However, due to several conceptual limitations (e.g. disregard for rarity, spatial structure and cultural values, questions of recency and repetition) NCI should not be regarded as a self-sufficient universal tool, and strategic decisions should be based on careful consideration of all potentially relevant factors.
Authors:Á. Szabó, A. Molnár, J. Győrfi and B. Pénzes
The authors give account on 4 species, viz.
(C. L. Koch, 1839),
Karg, 1971 belonging to the order Mesostigmata, which have not been recorded so far in the Hungarian fauna. In addition, the genus
has hitherto been unknown in the domestic fauna. A sole female of
was collected from the flowers of sweet pepper (
L.) grown in glasshouse. The specimens of
were found in the ground litter of an apple orchard, and
specimens were collected from the growing medium of champignon [
(J. Lge.) Imbach].