Species-specific PCR assay was used to
monitor endophytic colonization of maize by F. proliferatum. The fungus could
be detected in all parts of one-week-old seedlings, grown in artificially
infected soil indicating that F. proliferatum entered into the host tissues
during germination. However, the extent of colonization gradually decreased and
by the third week no signs of infection were detected in any part of the
plants. These findings confirmed that F. proliferatum is a weak pathogen of
maize and the damage reportedly caused by this species originates from
horizontal transmission of the fungus rather than from an unbalanced endophytic
Authors:I. Oláh, Zs. Bendő, Gy. Szakmány, V. Szilágyi and B. Péterdi
The authors carried out the archaeometric analyses of 9 basalt preforms found at the Kádárta site in Veszprém county. Most of the analyses used non-destructive methods (macroscopic petrography, PGAA, MS and electron-microprobe (EDXEPMA) method developed within the frames of these investigations) and the traditional destructive petrographic and mineral chemical analyses were carried out on a small flake. All the analyses demonstrated that the nine basalt artefacts were prepared from the same raw material. According to the material collected so far from the basalt volcanoes of the Pannonian Basin, this raw material came from the volcanic territory of the Little Hungarian Plain and the Balaton Highlands. Within these territories the most probable provenance of the raw material is the lava rocks in the region of Boncsos-tető, although Hegyestű, Somló and Haláp cannot definitely be excluded.
Authors:N. Nagy, B. Igyártó, A. Magyar, Emese Gazdag, V. Palya and I. Oláh
The oesophageal tonsil of the chicken is a novel member of the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), which is located around the entrance of the proventriculus. It consists of 6 to 8 single units, which are surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule. Each one is organised around the bottom of the longitudinal folds of the oesophagus, and serves as a 'tonsillar crypt'. Stratified squamous epithelium is infiltrated by lymphoid cells, i.e. T cells, plasma cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, but not B cells, to form lymphoepithelium (LE). In the LE vimentin-, MHC II- and ATPase-positive cells possibly represent Langerhans' cells, but the appearance of 74.3 positive cells in the LE is unusual, because the 74.3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognises chicken follicular dendritic cells in the germinal centre and medulla of the bursal follicles. The subepithelial lymphoid tissue is organised into T- and B-dependent regions, which are the interfollicular areas and the germinal centres, respectively. Existence of high-endothelial venules in the interfollicular region suggests an extensive cellular connection between the oesophageal tonsil and the other lymphoid organs. In the resting oesophagus the lumen is closed, but during swallowing a bolus the crypt opens and the lymphoepithelium can be exposed to undigested food, antigens, infectious agents and vaccines. The location of the oesophageal tonsil, cranial to the stomach, may provide this organ with a unique role as compared to the other parts of the MALT; namely, it may contribute to the replication of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and/or the pathogenesis of infectious bursal disease.
Authors:J Fodor, A Gomba-Tóth, T Oláh, E Zádor, Zs Cs Tóth, I Ioannis, B Molnár, I Kovács and L Csernoch
Atherosclerosis is a disease caused by a build-up of fatty plaques and cholesterol in the arteries. The lumen of the vessels is obliterated resulting in restricted blood supply to tissues. In ischemic conditions, the cytosolic Ca2+ level of skeletal muscle may increase, indicating the alteration of Ca2+ removal mechanisms. Ca2+ is transported from cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), with its 1a isoform expressed in adult, while its 1b isoform in neonatal and regenerating fast-twitch skeletal muscle. To investigate the role of these isoforms in ischemic skeletal muscle, biopsies from musculus biceps femoris of patients who underwent amputation due to atherosclerosis were examined. Samples were removed from the visibly healthy and hypoxia-affected tissue. Significantly increased SERCA1a expression was detected under the ischemic conditions (246 ± 69%; p < 0.05) compared with the healthy tissue. Furthermore, the ratio of SERCA1a-positive fibers was slightly increased (46 ± 4% in healthy tissue and 60 ± 5% in ischemic tissue; p > 0.05), whereas SERCA2a did not change. In addition, in primary cultures derived from hypoxia-affected tissue, the diameter and fusion index of myotubes were significantly increased (30 ± 1.6 µm vs. 41 ± 2.4 µm and 31 ± 4% vs. 45 ± 3%; p < 0.05). We propose that the increased SERCA1a expression indicates the existence and location of compensating mechanisms in ischemic muscle.
Authors:P. Török, E. Tóth, K. Tóth, O. Valkó, B. Deák, B. Kelbert, P. Bálint, Sz. Radócz, A. Kelemen, J. Sonkoly, T. Miglécz, G. Matus, A. Takács, V. A. Molnár, K. Süveges, L. Papp, L. Papp Jr., Z. Tóth, B. Baktay, G. Málnási Csizmadia, I. Oláh, E. Peti, J. Schellenberger, O. Szalkovszki, R. Kiss and B. TÓthmérész
For understanding local and regional seed dispersal and plant establishment processes and for considering the ecotypes and other forms of specific variability, hard data of locally or regionally measured traits are necessary. We provided newly measured seed weight data of 193 taxa, out of which 24 taxa had not been represented in the SID, LEDA or BiolFlor databases. Our new measurements and formerly published data of locally collected seed weight records together covers over 70% of the Pannonian flora. However, there is still a considerable lack in seed weight data of taxonomically problematic genera, even though they are represented in the Pannonian flora with a relatively high number of species and/or subspecies (e.g. Sorbus, Rosa, Rubus, Crataegus and Hieracium). Our regional database contains very sporadic data on aquatic plants (including also numerous invasive species reported from Hungary and neighbouring countries) and some rare weeds distributed in the southwestern part of the country. These facts indicate the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.