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In 2000-2002 thrips species were collected from mature white cabbage head leaves in Hungary. The total number of the sampled specimens was 4226. Out of the 3374 identified adults Thrips tabaci was predominant (91.3%). Frankliniella tenuicornis was found in significant number (6.9%) with rather extraordinary appearance in 2000 (15.1%) but in the other years its frequency was lower (0.5%, 1.9% respectively). The rest of the adults (1.8%) were: Frankliniella intonsa, Aeolothrips intermedius, Thrips angusticeps, Thrips atratus, Haplothrips aculeatus, Limothrips denticornis, Anaphothrips obscurus, Chirothrips manicatus and Scolothrips longicornis. The 852 second instar larvae were also identified. 96.4% was Thrips tabaci, 2.7% Thrips angusticeps and 0.8% Anaphothrips obscurus. In spite of the fact that in 2000 15.1% of the adults on cabbage was Frankliniella tenuicornis, not a single larva was found. Therefore we concluded that in Hungary it is only the thelytokous populations of Thrips tabaci that are of high importance as thrips pest of white cabbage.

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The onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) has been known for a long time as a pest of onion. The damage hinders the development of the onion, causing the plant to end its development earlier than usual, so there may be a decrease in crop yield, too. Control of the onion crop against the onion thrips is the basis of its protection. The chemical protection is difficult owing to the hidden lifestyle of the pest and the wax cover on the leaf of the onion. The natural enemies of the onion thrips can reduce the population only to a small degree. One of the efficient and environmentally friendly protection methods could be the production of thrips resistant onion varieties. The thrips susceptibility of onion varieties (dry onion, leek, green bunch onion and chive) produced in Hungary is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the thrips susceptibility of commercially produced onion varieties and to work out the methods of a large-scale investigation.

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Neozygites parvispora Remaudière and Keller (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) is a pathogen of thrips species. It is widespread and probably occurs throughout Central and Southern Europe. This is the first report on the occurrence of Neozygites parvispora Remaudière and Keller in Hungary.

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European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) is widespread in Europe. The disease, which is on the increase in Hungary, causes losses in yield, deterioration in fruit quality, decrease in the lifespan of fruit bearing trees and finally the death of the plant affected. It is most probably the leafhoppers and psyllids that play a role in the spread of the disease. In Hungary, the species composition of leafhoppers in apricot orchards had not been known before our research was carried out. In order to search for the potential vectors of the disease, research was undertaken to identify the leafhopper species present in the orchard along with their population changes. Samplings and checks were taken periodically in a pesticide-treated apricot orchard infected with ESFY in Pomáz, during the whole vegetation period of 2001. Various collecting methods were used for monitoring the species. Samples were obtained from the canopy, the undergrowth and the plants adjacent to the orchard by the means of Malaise traps, suction traps and yellow sticky boards. 3117 individuals belonging to 85 leafhopper species were collected during our samplings. A species (Edwardsiana sp.) presumably new to the fauna was also collected, although research is still underway to remove all doubts about its identification. The leafhoppers were present throughout the vegetation period. A significant increase in the number of Edwardsiana lamellaris, E. rosae and of Eupteryx calcarata was detected between the end of May and the beginning of June, whereas in the middle of August, at the end of September and in mid-October an increase in the number of Empoasca solani, E. decipiens and Zygina flammigera was observed. On the basis of the abundance of the species as well as that of the study of the canopy it can be stated that apricot trees are among the host-plants of Edwardsiana lamellaris, E. rosae and Eupteryx calcarata. Our objectives for further studies are to assess the role in ESFY transmission of the leafhopper species collected.

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The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has been recognized as a severe worldwide pest of white cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. capitata provar. capitata Duch.) for almost three decades. Although the most effective control measure is the use of resistant varieties, little is known about the resistance mechanism(s) involved. In 2007, a study at Tordas, Hungary, was carried out with 6 varieties to confirm that antixenosis is at least partly responsible for the resistance against onion thrips. The number of adult thrips and their progeny was counted on the outer ten head leaves at one-third of the heading process. At the same time, the light reflectance of old and outer head leaves was measured. The onion thrips damage was also assessed at full maturity. Antixenosis was found to be responsible for the resistance of ‘Balashi’, ‘Bloktor’ and ‘Riana’ varieties, since the number of adults and offspring found on head leaves was significantly lower than that of ‘Green gem’, ‘Hurricane’ and ‘Quisto’. The resistant varieties (‘Balashi’, ‘Bloktor’ and ‘Riana’) similarly suffered significantly lower damage than the susceptible ones (‘Green gem’, ‘Hurricane’ and ‘Quisto’). The light reflectance spectra of all six varieties were almost identical in the case of the old leaves, but a difference was found between the susceptible and resistant varieties when the reflectance of the outer head-forming leaves was measured. Similarly, the colour of the old leaves was not greatly different, but that of the outer head-forming leaves was correlated to the number of thrips adults found in the cabbage heads.

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A faunistic survey was carried out in order to monitor the occurrence of phytoseiid species in 82 vineyards located in 6 distinctive wine regions between 2004 and 2009. We have registered the habitat of the species present, and also identified the most widespread and abundant species which are the most important in limiting phytophagous mites. Twenty phytoseiid species as well as 7 species belonging to other families of the order Mesostigmata have been identified, out of which T. pyri has been the most dominant in all wine regions tested. Although the occurrence of 15 phytoseiid species has been known in Hungary before, 7 out of them have been collected in vineyards for the first time. A further 3 species have not been included in Hungarian faunistic works before this study. The species belonging to the families Ameroseiidae, Podocinidae and Ascidae are all new in vineyards, and Ameroseius pavidus (Koch, 1839) has been collected in the Hungarian fauna for the first time.

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In autumn 2002 field screening tests were carried out at the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control in order to assess the susceptibility of 52 white cabbage varieties to Thrips tabaci. The evaluation based on the degree of damage occurring on the head leaves. In case of each variety, all the damaged leaves of 10 mature cabbage heads were marked with the appropriate value of the six-degree damage rating scale created for the procedure. The ratings for each leaf expressed the size of the damaged surface proportional to the surface of the whole leaf. Varietal resistance was represented by the sum of these values (proportional to the surface of the first head leaf) expressing the damage observed on the whole head. The number of damaged leaves was also counted. All varieties suffered smaller or greater damage. However, 'Bariton', 'Bently', 'Desmond', 'Avalon', 'Masada' and 'Transam' were the least damaged and described as resistant varieties, therefore recommended for late autumn cabbage production. The damage decreased from month to month from September till December.

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Authors: Á. Szabó, A. Molnár, J. Győrfi and B. Pénzes

The authors give account on 4 species, viz. Garmaniella bombophila Westerboer, 1963, Veigaia planicola (Berlese, 1892), Ameroseius pavidus (C. L. Koch, 1839), Lasioseius fimetorum Karg, 1971 belonging to the order Mesostigmata, which have not been recorded so far in the Hungarian fauna. In addition, the genus Garmaniella has hitherto been unknown in the domestic fauna. A sole female of Garmaniella bombophila was collected from the flowers of sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) grown in glasshouse. The specimens of Veigaia planicola were found in the ground litter of an apple orchard, and Lasioseius fimetorum specimens were collected from the growing medium of champignon [ Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge.) Imbach].

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Authors: Á. Szabó, G. Ripka, Zs. Hajdu, B. Tempfli, M. Varga, I. Mészáros, Cs. Kutasi, T. Németh and B. Pénzes

The authors give account of 7 new species, viz. Proctolaelaps striatus (Westerboer, 1963), Hypoaspis kargi Costa, 1968, Hypoaspis fishtowni Ruf and Köhler, 1993, Neoseiulus zwölferi (Dosse, 1957), Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Henriot, 1960), Neoseiulus subtilisetosus (Beglyarov, 1962), Neoseiulus pepperi (Specht, 1968) belonging to the order Mesostigmata, which have not been recorded so far in the Hungarian fauna.

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Authors: K. Hári, B. Pénzes, J. Jósvai, I. Holb, I. Szarukán, I. Szólláth, I. Vitányi, S. Koczor, M. Ladányi and M. Tóth

Traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid were capable of monitoring the codling moth although caught fewer specimens than pheromone baited traps. The general flight patterns recorded in pear ester + acetic acid baited traps resembled closely those recorded with pheromone traps. The only aspect in which pear ester + acetic acid baited traps lagged behind was early detection of first moth specimens occurring in the season. The great advantage of traps with pear ester + acetic acid over pheromone traps was that the former caught females in a high percentage. Further studies are needed to determine whether the sex ratio recorded in captures resembles reliably the natural sex ratio of the given population, or it is distorted. It appears that traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid present a useful alternative for monitoring codling moth especially in mating disruption treated orchards where pheromone traps do not work, or in any other situations where for any reason the capture of female codling moths is sought for. The lower efficiency of the pear ester + acetic acid bait can easily be overcome by applying more traps for monitoring at a given site.

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