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  • Author or Editor: B. Rodríguez x
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Abstract  

Irradiation of α-Al2O3 (Corundum) was carried out in contact with acidic media and with different doses (100-to-2500 kGy) and dose-rates (0.9, 2.6 and 6.1 kGy·h−1) of γ-rays. Simultaneously parallel experiments were carried out using the same procedure, but preheated at 150°C for two days and then irradiated without acidic media. The solid thus obtained was used to determine the effect of γ-irradiation on the sorption capacities of microamounts of fission products from strongly alkaline aqueous solutions of uranium. The results revealed that the effect of γ-irradiation of α-Al2O3 and the acidic media in which it is immersed, is associated with a stable matrix resistant to significant changes in the composition of the surface layer; whilst it seems that the effect of γ-irradiation of preheated α-Al2O3, is connected with changes of surface-OH groups strongly affected by heat treatment and irradiation dose.

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Abstract  

The use of ionizing radiation to achieve some desired effect on silica gel, applicable to the adsorption of radionuclides has been investigated as a function of the dose-rate over a wide range of doses, in experiments with strongly alkaline aqueous solutions containing an excess of UO 2 2+ relative to trace concentrations of88Y,103Ru,134Cs and141Ce. The results obtained revealed that γ-irradiation of silica gel was reproduced with an uptake comparable to that measured for the unirradiated-silica gel. Radiation resistance is strongly influenced by the basic macromolecular structure, the presence of water, and the particular environmental exposure conditions.

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The development of stress drives a host of biological responses that include the overproduction of a family of proteins named heat shock proteins (HSPs), because they were initially studied after heat exposure. HSPs are evolutionarily preserved proteins with a high degree of interspecies homology. HSPs are intracellular proteins that also have extracellular expression. The primary role of HSPs is to protect cell function by preventing irreversible protein damage and facilitating molecular traffic through intracellular pathways. However, in addition to their chaperone role, HSPs are immunodominant molecules that stimulate natural as well as disease-related immune reactivity. The latter may be a consequence of molecular mimicry, generating cross-reactivity between human HSPs and the HSPs of infectious agents. Autoimmune reactivity driven by HSPs could also be the result of enhancement of the immune response to peptides generated during cellular injury and of their role in the delivery of peptides to the major histocompatibility complex in antigen-presenting cells. In humans, HSPs have been found to participate in the pathogenesis of a large number of diseases. This review is focused on the role of HSPs in atherosclerosis and essential hypertension.

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Abstract  

The state of trace concentrations of95Zr–95Nb and134Cs was studied at an initial pH>13 in an uranyl triperoxidate medium using the electromigration method. OH ions governing the potential are adsorbed on the colloidal Nb(V)-hydroxide which leads to an increase in its negative electric charge; while95Zr did not move during the procedure. However, the electrophoretic mobility of the134Cs could be explained in terms of their agglomerations attributed to the interaction of Cs+ ions with water molecules to give larger aggregations.

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Abstract  

A great variety in retention properties occurs as a result of different methods of preparation of the sorbents. Specific surfaces and porosities, which are mostly connected with the sorption activities, may vary widely. The activation of Al2O3, SnO2 and silica gel, to produce highly active sorbents occurs only if the oxide is contacted with acid immediately after thermal treatment. The efficiency of the separation scheme has been tested using uranium and fission products under static conditions from strongly alkaline aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

An effective modification of the chemical processes has been obtained to dissolve uranium(IV) and extract it as uranium triperoxocomplex, which facilitates its manipulation and final conversion into uranium nitrate as a high purity concentrate.

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A GC-FID method for major volatile analysis in cider and wine was validated under the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025 regulation using a split mode injection. This method presented a good linearity (R2>0.999, Cm>99%), a wide range of calibration, the maximum random errors for repeatability and intermediate precision were 5% and 8%, respectively, and the maximum limit of quantification and limit of detection were 14.1 mg l–1 and 4.6 mg l–1, respectively. Trueness, expressed as recovery (%), was successfully validated by means of two different methods, standard addition (92–110%) and comparison against reference materials (93–115%). Expanded uncertainty estimated at 95% confidence level ranged between 11% for methanol and 7% for allyl alcohol. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of major volatiles in ciders and wines, and to detect yeast and lactic acid bacteria spoilage.

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Abstract  

It has been established that the coexistence of chemical species structurally different from cerium, is a direct consequence of the time taken for its preparation. Its practical applications, within the scope of purifying uranium, may constitute the most important technological aspect in the process of ionic exchange, to separate141Ce from uranium.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a well-known analytical method for nondestructive, sensitive and accurate determination of elemental composition of geological samples. In the present work twenty-two elements were determined by INAA in nine rhyolitic geological samples from a wolframium ore body Lela, located in the territory of Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. The obtained results are important for the preliminary geochemical evaluation of the studied rocks.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and gamma spectrometric analysis (GSA) were used for the determination of twenty-one elements in pegmatites of Loma Venturilla area, in Central Cuba. The application of both methods allowed the determination of K, Co, Cr, Sc, Rb, Cs, Ba, Ta, Hf, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu. The results were obtained with good precision and accuracy. The knowledge of such concentrations is particularly useful for geochemical investigations. The obtained concentration values can be used in studies on the petrogenesis of those rocks. The results facilitate the evaluation and estimation of the main process involved in the generation and differentiation of the melts from which the pegmatites were formed.

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