Biodiversity monitoring is important to identify conservation needs and test the efficacy of management actions. Variants of “abundance” (
) are among the most widely monitored quantities, e.g., (true) abundance, number of occupied sites (distribution, occupancy) or species richness. We propose a sampling-based view of monitoring that clearly acknowledges two sampling processes involved when monitoring
. First, measurements from the surveyed sample area are generalized to a larger area, hence the importance of a probability sample. Second, even within sampled areas only a sample of units (individuals, occupied sites, species) is counted owing to imperfect detectability
< 1, counts are random variables and their expectation
) is related to
via the relationship
< 1, counts vary even under identical conditions and underestimate
, and patterns in counts confound patterns in
with those in
. In addition, part of the population
may be unavailable for detection, e.g., temporarily outside the sampled quadrat, underground or for another reason not exposed to sampling; hence a more general way of describing a count is
is availability probability and
detection, given availability. We give two examples of monitoring schemes that highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for availability and detectability. In the Swiss reptile Red List update, the widespread and abundant slow worm (
) was recorded in only 22.1% of all sampled quadrats. Only an analysis that accounted for both availability and detectability gave realistic estimates of the species’ distribution. Among 128 bird species monitored in the Swiss breeding bird survey, detection in occupied 1 km
quadrats averaged only 64% and varied tremendously by species (3–99 %); hence observed distributions greatly underestimated range sizes and should not be compared among species. We believe that monitoring design and analyses should properly account for these two sampling processes to enable valid inferences about biodiversity. We argue for a more rigorous approach to both monitoring design and analysis to obtain the best possible information about the state of nature. An explicit recognition of, and proper accounting for, the two sampling processes involved in most monitoring programs will go a long way towards this goal.
There has been a significant research effort on the development of an oil industry based on Australian oil shales. However,
to date the research has been based mainly on the processing aspects of oil shale. The thermal analyses of oil shales, while
having been the subject of many studies, have been limited to some extent by instrumentation and analytical techniques. This
paper reports on thermal analysis studies utilising traditional thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The application of modern thermal analysis techniques such as high resolution TG
(HRTG) and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) is also examined and compared to the traditional methods.
With different TLC-methods the Rf-values of myo-inosite, myo-inosose (2), (I) epi-inosose, tetrahydroxy-p-chinon, d, 1-myo-inosose-2-phenylosazon, d,1-xylo-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-oxo-1,3
bis(phenylhydrazono)-cyclohexan are qualitative determined.
After irradiation of an aqueous 1% myo-inosite solution in presence of oxygen, following radiolysis products are qualitative
demonstrable: 2,3,5/4,6-pentahydroxycyclohexanon, d,1-3,5/4,6-tetrahydroxycyclohexandion, d,1-xylo-4,5,6-trihydroxycyclohexan-1,2,3-trion,
tetrahydroxy-p-benzochinon, glyoxylic acid, formic acid and carbon dioxide. The increase in the concentration of the radiolysis
products is followed by a loss of myo-inosite. In dependence of radiation dosis the above mentioned radiolysis products are
Irradiating myo-inosite of 1% solution under N2 atmosphere, it was established that the oxidation goes only up to monoketone (myo-inose-2) and a desoxy derivative 1,3,5/2,4-cyclohexapentite
(scyllo-quercite) occurs. A new polymer was also observed which did not take place during irradiation under O2 atmosphere.
As a prevention, a physically active lifestyle including the performance of weight-bearing exercises is important to enhance and maintain bone mineral content. Fifty young women were selected for the study. Twenty-five women carried out a specific training directed by a physiotherapist in the training group (TG), while 25 women were walking for 60 minutes in the control group (CG). Total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP and BALP) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (CTX) levels were measured at the beginning and at the end of exercise. The most remarkable change was seen in CTX levels (TG −28.89%, p < 0.001; CG −52.54%, p < 0.001), and there was also a significant difference in the values of CTX between TG and CG (p = 0.012). Therefore, walking more significantly reduced the level of CTX than special exercise. The decrease of BALP in TG was considerable but not significant (TG −4.63%, p = 0.091), while BALP levels dropped significantly in CG (−7.65%, p = 0.011), and there was a non-significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.22). Regarding the ALP level, a significant reduction was detected in TG and CG (−6.84%, p < 0.001 vs. −4.57%, p < 0.001). This study reveals that the 60-minute, middle-intensity training and the brisk walking have an immediate effect on bone metabolic markers.
A three-year (2016–2018) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation, fertilisation, and seasonal variation on the main bioactive components, such as carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene), total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and tocopherols of processed Uno Rosso F1 tomato. The statistical evaluation of measurements proved that the multi-year data set cannot be evaluated as combined data set; the values obtained in different years must be evaluated separately. The impact of irrigation on the content of bioactive components varied from year to year. The correlation was negative between irrigation and α-tocopherol content in 2016 and 2018 (r = –0.567 and –0.605, respectively), polyphenol content in 2016 (r = –0.668), γ-tocopherol content in 2017 (r = –0.662), while positive correlation was observed between concentration of vitamin C (r = 0.533) in 2017, lycopene content (r = 0.473) in 2018 and irrigation intensity. A weak correlation was proved between K levels and concentrations of lycopene and polyphenols in 2016 (r = 0.301 and r = 0.392, respectively).
An extended Cu-target was irradiated with 22 and 44 GeV carbon ions for about 11.3 and 14.7 hours, respectively. The upper side of the target was in contact with a paraffin-block for the moderation of secondary neutrons. Small holes in the moderator were filled with either lanthanum salts or uranium oxide. The reaction
was studied via the decay of239Np(2.3 d) as well as the reaction U(n,f) using radiochemical methods. In addition, solid state nuclear track detectors were used for fission studies in gold. The yields for the formation of (n,) products agree essentially with other experiments on extended targets carried out at the Dubna Synchrophasotron (LHE, JINR). To a first approximation, the breeding rate of (n, ) products doubles when the carbon energy increases from 22 to 44 GeV. If, however, results at 44 GeV are compared in detail to those at 22 GeV, we observe an excess of (37±9)% in the experimentally observed239Np-breeding rate over theoretical estimations. Experiments using solid state nuclear track detectors give similar results. We present a conception for the interpretation of this fact: There is the evident connection between anomalies we observe in the yield of secondary particles in relativistic heavy ion interactions above a total energy of approximately 30–35 GeV and increased yield of neutrons in this energy region.
First experiments on the transmutation of long-lived129I and237Np using relativistic protons of 3.7 GeV are described. Relativistic protons generate in extended Pb-targets substancial neutron fluences. These neutrons get moderated in paraffin and are used for transmutation as follows:129I(n,)130I
. The isotopes130I (T1/2-12.36 h) and238Np (T1/2=2.117 d) were identified radiochemically. One can estimate the transmutation cross-section (n,) in the given neutron field as (129I(n,))=(10±2)b and (237Np(n,))=(140±30)b The experiments were carried out in November 1996 at the Synchrophasotron, LHE, Dubna, Russia. The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR, Dubna.