Authors:M. Shehata, B. Scholten, I. Spahn, S. Qaim, and H. Coenen
The radiochemical separation of radiogallium from radiogermanium was studied using ion-exchange chromatography (Amberlite
IR-120) and solvent extraction (Aliquat 336 in o-xylene). Both Amberlite IR-120 and Aliquat 336 in o-xylene have been used for the first time in separations involving radiogallium and radiogermanium. For tracer studies the
radionuclides 68Ge (t1/2 = 270.8 days), 69Ge (t1/2 = 39 h) and 67Ga (t1/2 = 78.3 h) were used. They were produced by the nuclear reactions natGa(p,xn)68,69Ge and natZn(p,xn)67Ga, respectively, and separated from their target materials in no-carrier-added form. Several factors affecting the separation
of radiogallium from radiogermanium were studied and for each procedure the optimum conditions were determined. The solvent
extraction using Aliquat 336 was found to be better. The separation yield of radiogallium was >95%, the time of separation
short, the contamination from radiogermanium <0.008% and the final product was obtained in 0.5 M KOH. This method was adapted
to the separation of n.c.a. 68Ga from its parent n.c.a. 68Ge. The quality of the product thus obtained is discussed.
Authors:S. Kandil, B. Scholten, K. Hassan, H. Hanafi, and S. Qaim
The radiochemical separation of 88Y from proton irradiated natSrCO3 and alpha-particle irradiated natRbCl, of 86Y from proton irradiated 86SrCO3, and of 87Y from alpha-particle irradiated natRbCl were studied at no-carrier-added levels by two techniques, namely, ion-exchange chromatography using Dowex 50W-X8 and
Dowex 21K resins, and solvent extraction using HDEHP. Out of all those methods, the ion-exchange chromatography using Dowex
50W-X8 (cation-exchanger) was found to be the best: the separation yield was high, the chemical impurity in the separated
radioyttrium (inactive Sr or Rb) was low (0.5 μg) and the final product was obtained in the form of citrate. The optimized
separation method using Dowex 50W-X8 was applied in practical production of 86Y and 88Y via proton irradiations of 86SrCO3 and natSrCO3, respectively, at 16 MeV as well as of 87Y and 88Y via α-particle irradiation of natRbCl at 26 MeV. The tangible experimental yields of 86Y and 87Y amounted to 150 and 5.7 MBq/μA·h, respectively. The yields of 88Y obtained were 0.06 MBq/μA·h and 1 MBq/μA·h for alpha-particle and proton irradiations, respectively. Each yield value corresponds
to more than 70% of the respective theoretical value.
Authors:M. Shehata, B. Scholten, I. Spahn, H. Coenen, and S. Qaim
A method for the separation of no-carrier-added arsenic radionuclides from the bulk amount of proton-irradiated GeO2 targets as well as from coproduced radiogallium was developed. The radionuclides 69Ge and 67Ga produced during irradiation of GeO2 were used as tracers for Ge and Ga in the experiments. After dissolution of the target the ratio of As(III) to As(V) was
determined via thin layer chromatography (TLC). The extraction of radioarsenic by different organic solvents from acid solutions
containing alkali iodide was studied and optimized. The influence of the concentration of various acids (HCl, HClO4, HNO3, HBr, H2SO4) as well as of KI was studied using cyclohexane. The optimum separation of radioarsenic was achieved using cyclohexane with
4.75 M HCl and 0.5 M KI and its back-extraction with a 0.1% H2O2 solution. The separation leads to high purity radioarsenic containing no radiogallium and <0.001% [69Ge]Ge. The overall radiochemical yield is 93 ± 3%. The practical application of the optimized procedure in the production
of 71As and 72As is demonstrated and batch yields achieved were in the range of 75–84% of the theoretical values.
Authors:S. Kandil, B. Scholten, Z. Saleh, A. Youssef, S. Qaim, and H. Coenen
The radiochemical separation of no-carrier-added zirconium from proton irradiated yttrium was studied by two techniques, namely,
ion-exchange chromatography using Dowex 50W-X8 and Dowex 21K resins, and solvent extraction using HDEHP and TPPO, the latter
reagent being employed for the first time for separation of radiozirconium from bulk of yttrium. Out of all those techniques,
the solvent extraction using TPPO was found to be the best: the separation yield of radiozirconium was >97%, the time of separation
was short, the contamination from the long-lived 88Y activity was low (10−4%) and the final product was obtained in the form of oxalate. The production of 89Zr and 88Zr of high radionuclidic and chemical purity via irradiation of yttrium targets with protons of energies 12 and 20 MeV, respectively,
is described. The experimental yields of the two radionuclides were found to be 28 MBq/μA·h and 1.63 MBq/μA·h, respectively.
Each value corresponds to about 80% of the respective theoretical yield.
Authors:C. Dirks, B. Scholten, S. Happel, A. Zulauf, A. Bombard, and H. Jungclas
Cu isotopes (e.g. 64Cu) increasingly find use in radiopharmaceutical applications, accordingly fast and reliable methods for the production of
these isotopes are needed. The aim of the presented project is the characterization of a Cu selective extraction chromatographic
resin for the fast and selective separation of Cu radionuclides, e.g. from irradiated targets. The characterisation of the
resin includes the determination of weight distribution factors Dw of Cu, Ni, Zn and other potentially interfering elements and impurities for varying acids and pH values, the influence of
macro amounts of Ni and Zn on the extraction of Cu as well as the influence of other potential interferents. Based on the
obtained results, a method for the separation of Cu and its purification from irradiated Ni or Zn targets was developed and
tested on simulated Ni and Zn targets.