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Introduction

Maintaining appropriate eating habits is one of the key components of good health. It is especially difficult during adolescence, a critical period in life because of the increased autonomy and the intention to take risks. Investigating the theoretical background of adolescents’ eating behaviour is therefore a worthwhile line of research. We applied the widely used health belief model to explore adolescents’ likelihood of healthy eating.

Materials and methods

A sample of adolescents (Szeged, Hungary; N = 400, age = 14–19 years; mean age = 16.01 years, SD = 1.18 years; 37% males) participated in the study. Data were collected through online, self-administered/anonymous questionnaires. Based on bidirectional correlations of the variables, we used a path analysis to examine relationships between elements of a modified health belief model.

Results

Our modified model showed the direct impacts of cues to action, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy, and the indirect impacts of perceived severity and susceptibility-via-cues-to-action on the likelihood of healthy eating.

Discussion and conclusions

Elements of the health belief model play a decisive role in estimating adolescents’ healthy eating behaviour. We suggest that the model can serve as a useful theoretical background in planning and evaluating prevention programs to reduce obesity and promote healthy eating.

Open access

Secondary sexual characteristics such as softening and rounding of the abdomen as well as reddening and protrusion of the anal papilla and vent can be of help to breeders in selecting common carp (Cyprinus carpio) females prepared for propagation. To assess the reliability of this method, long-term data obtained on induced spawning of common carp at a large-scale fish hatchery were evaluated. The average spawning ratio of 2,620 females receiving hormonal injections was 79.8%. The average pseudogonadosomatic index (PGSI) calculated from data on the egg production of 2,086 females was 16.3 ± 5.87% (mean ± SD) for the same period. There was a correlation between fish weight and the time of induction determined by the breeder on the basis of external morphological characteristics. The similarity of the responses of females, including both spawning ratio and PGSI, among the different weight categories proved the reliability of this method for identification.

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Papaver somniferum produces secondary metabolites, which have important roles in their self-defence processes, in plant biochemistry and in allelochemistry. We can see that different stress effects change the quantity of alkaloids. The object of the experiments is, in what manner changes the content of alkaloids of poppy in case of irregular stress effects. Papaver somniferum (cv. 'Kék Duna', Budakalász) plants were grown for 2 months from seeds in quartz-sand (in natural light, temperature: 24-28 °C, in Knop's nutritive solution). In this paper we studied the alkaloid of poppy treated with two kind of stress factors: mycotoxin and drought, respectively. Both the quantity and the spectrum of alkaloids were measured after different separation procedures. Thin layer chromatography (TLC and HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were applied. Content of the level of formaldehyde (HCHO) also increases in plants with different stress effects. Our presupposition is that the formation of methyl groups of poppy alkaloids takes place through HCHO. It gave us an opportunity to examine changing of formaldehyde (HCHO) level in biotic and abiotic stress situation. Formaldehyde in dimedone adduct form can be detected in injured tissues of Papaver somniferum. As a consequence, the stress effects can be detected in poppy plants by two kinds of method. At first we measured content of alkaloids. Drought stress produced a higher level of the alkaloids, but the mycotoxin stress did not show significant results.

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A faunistic survey was carried out in order to monitor the occurrence of phytoseiid species in 82 vineyards located in 6 distinctive wine regions between 2004 and 2009. We have registered the habitat of the species present, and also identified the most widespread and abundant species which are the most important in limiting phytophagous mites. Twenty phytoseiid species as well as 7 species belonging to other families of the order Mesostigmata have been identified, out of which T. pyri has been the most dominant in all wine regions tested. Although the occurrence of 15 phytoseiid species has been known in Hungary before, 7 out of them have been collected in vineyards for the first time. A further 3 species have not been included in Hungarian faunistic works before this study. The species belonging to the families Ameroseiidae, Podocinidae and Ascidae are all new in vineyards, and Ameroseius pavidus (Koch, 1839) has been collected in the Hungarian fauna for the first time.

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Basil has traditionally been used for a long time in medicine and gastronomy. Essential oil is the most important active substance of the drug, which influences the aroma and the effect of the plant. Although the compositions of essential oils vary in different basil cultivars, the main components are oxygenated monoterpenes and phenylpropane derivates. The high chemical variation is most likely caused by interspecific hybridization. Various factors, like genetic background, ontogenesis, morphogenesis, abiotic factors, essential oil extraction method, drying, and storage, are responsible for the variant essential oil composition.

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The authors give account of 5 new species, viz. Metalorryia armaghensis (Baker 1968), Neoapolorryia kristinae Momen and Lundqvist 1996, Lorryia zaheri (Baker 1968), Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor 1954) and Tenuipalpus pacificus Baker 1945, which have not been recorded so far in the Hungarian fauna.

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Data of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species isolated during the 1997-2000 period in the Medical and Health Science Center of the University of Debrecen are analysed. The number of yeast isolates increased from 408 to 1213 per year during this period. Dominance of C. albicans has been persistent, but a slight increase of C. glabrata and C. krusei could be observed. Distribution of different Candida species isolated from 16 body sites indicates that C. albicans seems to be still the most aggressive Candida species. Investigation of 244 urinary Candida isolates (parallel with bacterial cultures) suggests that tha aetiological role of Candida species in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections can be hypothesized if colony forming unit (CFU) number of yeasts is higher than 104/ml and bacteria are present in low CFU number or are absent. Antifungal susceptibility testing of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei against Flucytosine, Amphotericin-B, Miconazole, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole suggests that Amphotericin-B is still the most effective antifungal agent. Finally, the problems in judging the aetiological role of isolated Candida species in the pathogenesis of different types of diseases are critically discussed.

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Commercial sodium caseinate isolate (SCI) was hydrolysed with either protease Subtilisina carlsberg - Alcalase 2.4 FG (purchased from Novo Nordisk), pronase from Streptomyces griseus, and papain EC 3.4.22.2 (both from Sigma) in a two-step process to determine the changes in the immunoreactivity of a-, ß- and ?-casein. Enzymatic hydrolysis of SCI was performed by pH-stat method. Hydrolysates were analysed using IEF, SDS-PAGE, 2D electrophoresis, FPLC-gel permeation chromatography. Immunoreactive properties of peptide fractions separated from the hydrolysates by FPLC were determined using dot-immunobinding and ELISA methods. The two-step process was observed to be effective in reduction of casein fractions immunoreactivity, however, allergenic epitopes were still present in all peptide fractions.

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Analytical application of Cherenkov radiation

V. Protein content determination by Cherenkov photometry

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
F. Kulcsár
,
R. Novák
,
L. Szabó
, and
B. Matkovics

Abstract  

Data are reported on the development of a Cherenkov photometric producere, applying the basic principle of the method of LOWRY et al. At various amplifications and channel settings, linear correlations may be obtained between the logarithm of the protein content and the external standard activity or the channel ratio. The values obtained by Cherenkov spectrophotometry based on the Filin method display a linear correlation with each other with a good correlation coefficient.

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Date-locality records for 32 mite species of the 6 families are presented for Hungary. These data include two new records for Hungary, viz. Typhlodromus exhilaratus exhilaratus (Ragusa) Chant et Yoshida-Shaul, 1987 and Mediolata belfieldi Momen, 1987. Details on habitats, plant associations and feeding behaviour are also provided.

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