In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, during the regular in-seasonal basketball training, an additional 7-week plyometric training program improves lower extremity strength, balance, agility, and jump performance in adolescent female basketball players. Eighteen female basketball players less than 17 years of age were randomly assigned into an experimental group (plyometric training) and a control group. Both groups underwent the same basketball training program. Pre- and post-training test periods included quadriceps and hamstring strength, balance, jump performance, and agility measurements. Illinois agility test time (p = 0.000) and quadriceps strength (p = 0.035) increased uniformly in the two groups. Significant group by test period interaction was found for countermovement jump (p = 0.007), and countermovement height reduced significantly in the plyometric training group (p = 0.012), while it remained unchanged in controls. No significant change was found for T agility test, balance, hamstring strength or H:Q ratio. This study shows that the training program used in-season did not improve the measured variables, except for knee extensor strength. It is possible that regular basketball trainings and games combined with high-volume plyometric training did not show positive functional effects because of the fatigue caused by incomplete recovery between sessions.
Right- and left-side-dominant individuals reveal target-matching asymmetries between joints of the dominant and non-dominant upper limbs. However, it is unclear if such asymmetries are also present in lower limb’s joints. We hypothesized that right-side-dominant participants perform knee joint target-matching tasks more accurately with their non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant participants.
Participants performed position sense tasks using each leg by moving each limb separately and passively on an isokinetic dynamometer.
Side-dominance affected (p < 0.05) knee joint absolute position errors only in the non-dominant leg but not in the dominant leg: right-side-dominant participants produced less absolute position errors (2.82° ± 0.72°) with the non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant young participants (3.54° ± 0.33°).
In conclusion, right-side-dominant participants tend to perform a target-matching task more accurately with the non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant participants. Our results extend the literature by showing that right-hemisphere specialization under proprioceptive target-matching tasks may be not evident at the lower limb joints.
We analyzed the heterogeneity of
hemocytes on the basis of the expression of cell-type specific antigens. The antigens characterize distinct subsets which partially overlap with those defined by morphological criteria. On the basis of the expression or the lack of expression of blood cell antigens the following hemocyte populations have been defined: crystal cells, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and precursor cells. The expression of the antigens and thus the different cell types are developmentally regulated. The hemocytes are arranged in four main compartments: the circulating blood cells, the sessile tissue, the lymph glands and the posterior hematopoietic tissue. Each hemocyte compartment has a specific and characteristic composition of the various cell types. The described markers represent the first successful attempt to define hemocyte lineages by immunological markers in
and help to define morphologically, functionally, spatially and developmentally distinct subsets of hemocytes.