We prove the existence of multiple solutions of certain systems of hemivariational inequalities, using a recent idea of B.
Ricceri. As a consequence of our main theorem we obtain the existence of multiple solutions of Schrödinger type systems. Another
application involves the principle of symmetric criticality.
In the research area of healthier meat products a possible trend is to replace high energy density fat in formulations with substances providing less energy than fat. The aim of the producers is to obtain a product having maximum yield with similar or same organoleptic properties and structure like well-known full-fat analogues. Properties of high fat products can be restored with the use of different fat substitutes, non-meat protein, and/or hydrocolloids or starch, owing to their stabilization abilities, fat coating, and water binding, respectively. The review is aimed to summarize the effect of different fat substitutes on the processing quality, textural characteristics, and sensory properties of comminuted meat products with low lipid content.
Numerous Fusarium species have been associated with the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of wheat, barley and other small-grain cereals, reducing worldwide cereal crop yields and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in the cereal grain, having an impact on both human and animal health.The year 2010 was extremely favourable for Fusarium head blight pathogens. Over a hundred symptomatic wheat heads were collected from various locations in Hungary. The aim was to determine the diversity of the Fusarium species infecting winter wheat ears. A total of 86 Fusarium spp. were morphologically identified from diseased kernels. F. sambucinum was found to be present in two of the Martonvásár samples. This pathogen had only previously been detected extremely sporadically. The species F. culmorum and F. verticillioides were found at a much lower rate than expected, while none of the isolates were identified as F. poae. On the basis of the results, 95% of the isolates belonged to the Fusarium graminearum species complex.
Our knowledge on the presence of mycotoxin producing fungi and mycotoxins in food commodities in the last decade in Hungary has been summarized in this review. Among the mycotoxin producing fungi, detailed data are available for Fusarium species in cereals, and mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species in different food commodities including coffee, raisins and spices. Ochratoxin concentrations above the tolerable limit have mostly been detected in imported products such as peanuts and coffee. Ochratoxin levels close to the tolerable limit have been observed in Hungarian red peppers. Besides, ochratoxin A has also been detected in Hungarian wine, beer and raisins. Aflatoxins are usually detected in considerable quantities only in imported agricultural products in Hungary, while patulin concentrations were usually below the allowable limit in Hungarian apple juice concentrates. In the future, continuous sampling and analysis of foods and feeds are required to ensure consumer safety in Hungary.
Authors:B. Varga, S. Bencze, T. Janda and O. Veisz
The impacts of climate modification were examined in terms of changes in the stress tolerance of winter wheat varieties. The enzyme reactions of two winter wheat varieties to drought stress, simulated by water withholding in three different phenophases, were analysed in a phytotron experiment in the Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Plants were raised either at ambient CO2 level or at twice this concentration. The quantities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were determined from leaf samples collected at the end of the drought treatment.The results showed that antioxidant enzymes may help to counterbalance the reactive oxygen species induced by stress during various stages of the vegetation period. Although there were substantial differences in the changes induced in the activity of individual enzymes by modifications in environmental factors, this activity and its response to stress depended not only on these factors, but also on the developmental stage of the plant. Modifications in enzyme activity could indicate that enhanced CO2 concentration delayed the development of drought stress up to first node appearance, and stimulated antioxidant enzyme activity when drought occurred during ripening.
Authors:J. Komáromi, S. Bencze, B. Varga, G. Vida and O. Veisz
Over the last two centuries the atmospheric CO2 level has exhibited a consistent rise, leading to an increase in the greenhouse effect. This level is now 35% higher than it was before the industrial revolution. On the basis of various scenarios from the Special Report on Emissions it is expected to rise from the present level of 385 ppm to 650–970 ppm by the end of the 21st century.Plant biomass and resistance of winter wheat to various powdery mildew pathotypes were investigated at normal (400 ppm) and enhanced (700 ppm) atmospheric CO2 levels in a greenhouse. Wheat cultivars Ukrainka and Mv Hombár, and 12 lines from the mapping population developed from their cross and exhibiting different level of resistance were tested.The results showed that the atmospheric CO2 level had little influence on the resistance of winter wheat to powdery mildew infections based on the percentage of leaf area covered whole plant percentage severity. In response to higher atmospheric CO2 level there was an increase in the aboveground biomass of the winter wheat genotypes tested in the present work, leading to an increase in plant height and in stem and leaf weight. However, the number of tillers and the grain yield did not increase compared with the values recorded at normal atmospheric CO2 level.
Authors:Brigitta Tóth, L. Lévai, B. Kovács, Mária Varga and Szilvia Veres
Biofertilizers are used to improve soil fertility and plant production in sustainable agriculture. However, their applicability depends on several environmental parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of free-living bacteria containing fertilizer on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Delicates) under aluminium (Al) stress. Different responses to Al stress of cucumber growth parameters were examined in terms of root elongation and physiological traits, such as Spad index (relative chlorophyll value), biomass accumulation of root and shoot, Al uptake and selected element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) of leaves and root. The applied bacteria containing biofertilizer contains Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium. The dry weights of cucumber shoots and roots decreased in line with the increasing Al concentration. Due to different Al treatments (10−3 M, 10−4 M) higher Al concentration was observed in the leaves, while the amounts of other elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) decreased. This high Al content of the leaves decreased below the control value when biofertilizer was applied. In the case of the roots the additional biofertilizer treatments compensated the effect of Al. The relative chlorophyll content was reduced during Al-stress in older plants and the biofertilizer moderated this effect. The root/shoot ratio was decreased in all the Al-treatments in comparison to the control. The living bacteria containing fertilizer also had a modifying effect. The root/shoot ratio increased at the 10−4 M Al2(SO4)2 + biofertilizer and 10−4 M Al(NO3)3 + biofertilizer treatments compared to the control and Al-treatments. According to our results the biofertilizer is an alternative nutrient supply for replacing chemical fertilizers because it enhances dry matter production. Biofertilizer usage is also offered under Al polluted environmental conditions. Although, the nutrient solution is a clean system where we can examine the main processes without other effects of natural soils. The soil can modify the results, e.g. the soil-born microorganisms affect nutrient availability, and also can modify the harmful effects of different heavy metals. The understanding of basic processes will help us to know more about the soil behaviour.