The title compound 3,3-dinitroazetidinium (DNAZ) 3,5-dinitrosalicylate (3,5-DNSA) was prepared and the crystal structure has
been determined by a four-circle X-ray diffractometer. The thermal behavior of the title compound was studied under a non-isothermal
condition by DSC and TG/DTG techniques. The kinetic parameters were obtained from analysis of the TG curves by Kissinger method,
Ozawa method, the differential method and the integral method. The kinetic model function in differential form and the value
of Ea and A of the decomposition reaction of the title compound are f(α)=4α3/4, 130.83 kJ mol−1 and 1013.80s−1, respectively. The critical temperature of thermal explosion of the title compound is 147.55 °C. The values of ΔS≠, ΔH≠ and ΔG≠ of this reaction are −1.35 J mol−1 K−1, 122.42 and 122.97 kJ mol−1, respectively. The specific heat capacity of the title compound was determined with a continuous Cp mode of mircocalorimeter. Using the relationship between Cp and T and the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initiation to thermal explosion (adiabatic
time-to-explosion) was obtained.
According to the theoretical basis of thermokinetics, the integral and differential thermokinetic equations of opposing reactions have been derived, and a novel thermokinetic research method, the characteristic parameter method for opposing reactions which taking place in a batch conduction calorimeter under isothermal condition, has been proposed in this paper. Only needing the characteristic thermoanalytical data corresponding to tm and 2tm from the same curve, the rate constants of forward and backward reactions and equilibrium constant can be calculated simultaneously with this method. In order to test the validity of this method, the proton-transfer reactions of nitroethane with ammonia at 15 and 25°C, and with trihydroxymethyl aminomethane (Tris) at 15 and 30°C have been studied, respectively. The results of rate constants and equilibrium constants calculated with this method are in agreement with those in the literature. Therefore, the characteristic parameter method for opposing reaction is believed to be correct.
Authors:X. Z. Lan, H. R. Pei, X. Yan, and W. B. Liu
Phase behavior of dodecane–tetradecane (n-C12H26–C14H30, n-C12–C14) binary system in bulk and confined in SBA-15 (pore diameters 8 nm; 15.9 nm) has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. The bulk system possesses some special phases relating to the rotator phase in normal alkanes. Dodecane–tetradecane mixtures confined in SBA-15 (8 nm) are a system miscible both in solid and liquid states with a phase diagram of a smooth curve. Dodecane–tetradecane system confined in SBA-15 (15.9 nm) exhibits not only solid–liquid (s–l) in all compositions but solid–solid transition in mole fractions of tetradecane 0.1–0.6, which forms a phase diagram of “loop line” shape. Melting temperatures of n-C12–C14/SBA-15 (8 nm) are lower than those of n-C12–C14/SBA-15 (15.9 nm) in all mole fractions. The evolution of the phase diagram of n-C12–C14 confined in 8 nm, 15.9 nm pore sizes of SBA-15 and in bulk, respectively, shows a dramatic effect of confinement on phase behavior of normal alkane mixtures. The s–l phase boundary lines of n-C12–C14/SBA-15 (8, 15.9 nm) are fitted as being , where D is a polynomial ∑ aixi, i = 1, 2,···, n (A = C14, B = C12).
Authors:Z. Tang, S. Fu, Z. Ren, H. Zhang, Z. Yang, B. Yan, and H. Zhang
Wheat-rye 1BL.1RS translocations have been widely used in wheat breeding programs. A 1BL.1RS translocation wheat line, 91S-23, was developed from a 1R monosomic addition of the rye
inbred line L155 into wheat
MY11. A new commercial wheat cultivar, CN18, which also contained the 1BL.1RS translocation, was derived from the cross MY11 × 91S-23. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence
hybridization (FISH) indicated that the rye centromere was eliminated from the 1BL.1RS chromosomes of CN18 but not from 91S-23. Based on the 1RS source and the centromeric structure of the translocation chromosome, CN18 qualifies as a new wheat cultivar possessing a 1BL.1RS translocation. CN18 displayed high yield performance and resistance to powdery mildew and stripe rust, whereas 91S-23 was susceptible to these diseases. The present study provides a new 1RS resource for wheat improvement.
Authors:H.J. Shi, Z.J. Sun, Z.M. Yan, and J.B. Ren
Temperature uniformity and heating rate subjected to radio frequency (RF) heating have major impact on the quality of treated low moisture foods. The objective of this paper was to analyse the influence of electrode distance on the heating behaviour of RF on condition that the sample shape, size, and location between the electrodes were defined. Considering peanut butter (PB) and wheat flour (WF) as sample food, a 3D computer simulation model was developed using COMSOL, which was experimentally validated by a RF machine (27.12 MHz, 6 kW). Specifically, the electrode distances were selected as 84, 89, 93, 99 and 89, 93, 98, 103 (mm) for RF heating of PB and WF, respectively. Results showed that the simulated results and experimental data agreed well; the temperature-time histories of the RF heating of PB and WF were approximate straight lines; both the temperature uniformity index and the heating rate decreased with the increase of the electrode distance; the heating rate had a negative logarithmic linear relationship with the electrode distance, which was independent of the types, geometry shapes and sizes of low moisture foods.
Authors:B. Yan, H. X. Ma, N. N. Zhao, T. Mai, J. R. Song, F. Q. Zhao, and R. Z. Hu
As N-2′,4′-dinitrophenyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine (DNPDNAZ) is an important derivative of 3,3-dinitroazetidine, its thermal behavior was studied under 0.1 and 2 MPa by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. The results of this study show that there are one melting process and two exothermic decomposition processes. Its kinetic parameters of the intense exothermic decomposition process were obtained from the analysis of the DSC curves. The activation energy and the mechanism function under 0.1 MPa are 167.26 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively, and the said parameters under 2 MPa are 169.30 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively. The specific heat capacity of DNPDNAZ was determined using a continuous Cp mode of micro-calorimeter. Using the relationship between Cp and T with the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initialization to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion, tTIAD), the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (TSADT), thermal ignition temperature (TTIT), critical temperatures of thermal explosion (Tb), and half-life (t1/2) were obtained to evaluate its thermal safety under different pressures.
Authors:H. X. Ma, B. Yan, Y. H. Ren, Y. Hu, Y. L. Guan, F. Q. Zhao, J. R. Song, and R. Z. Hu
3,3-Dinitroazetidinium (DNAZ) salt of perchloric acid (DNAZ·HClO4) was prepared, it was characterized by the elemental analysis, IR, NMR, and a X-ray diffractometer. The thermal behavior and decomposition reaction kinetics of DNAZ·HClO4 were investigated under a non-isothermal condition by DSC and TG/DTG techniques. The results show that the thermal decomposition process of DNAZ·HClO4 has two mass loss stages. The kinetic model function in differential form, the value of apparent activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (A) of the exothermic decomposition reaction of DNAZ·HClO4 are f(α) = (1 − α)−1/2, 156.47 kJ mol−1, and 1015.12 s−1, respectively. The critical temperature of thermal explosion is 188.5 °C. The values of ΔS≠, ΔH≠, and ΔG≠of this reaction are 42.26 J mol−1 K−1, 154.44 kJ mol−1, and 135.42 kJ mol−1, respectively. The specific heat capacity of DNAZ·HClO4 was determined with a continuous Cp mode of microcalorimeter. Using the relationship between Cp and T and the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initiation to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion) was evaluated as 14.2 s.
Premature termination codons (PTCs) are an important reason for the silence of highmolecular- weight glutenin subunits in Triticum species. Although the Glu-A1y gene is generally silent in common wheat, we here isolated an expressed Glu-A1y gene containing a PTC, named 1Ay8.3, from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n = 2x = 14). Despite the presence of a PTC (TAG) at base pair positions 1879–1881 in the C-terminal coding region, this did not obviously affect 1Ay8.3 expression in seeds. This was demonstrated by the fact that when the PTC TAG of 1Ay8.3 was mutated to the CAG codon, the mutant in Escherichia coli bacterial cells expressed the same subunit as in the seeds. However, in E. coli, 1Ay8.3 containing the PTC expressed a truncated protein with faster electrophoretic mobility than that in seeds, suggesting that PTC translation termination suppression probably occurs in vivo (seeds) but not in vitro (E. coli). This may represent one of only a few reports on the PTC termination suppression phenomenon in genes.