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T homas G. Weiss-David P. Forsythe-Roger A. Coate: The United Nations and Changing World Politics, 4th ed., Westwiew Press, Colorado-Oxford, 2004. lvi+373 p.

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This paper endeavors to analyze the current U.S. practice on the field of extraterritorial application of corporate governance law. As it is widely known, sovereignty is one of basic tenets of public international law, and its relevance is considerably debated in our age. Therefore, the main question of the paper is whether this qualitatively new U.S. practice on the field of extraterritoriality can contribute any insight for the better comprehension of the transformation of sovereignty. So, it will basically compare the lessons stemming from the adoption of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to the classical concept of sovereignty.In its first part the paper briefly introduces the reader into the basic notions of extraterritorial jurisdiction. In doing so, it analyzes some theoretical problems, the former U.S. antitrust law practice and the European approach. The second part of the paper deals with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act as an emblematic and very actual example of corporate governance law having extraterritorial reach. This part discusses the major provisions of the act in detail as well as examines the different arguments justifying or criticizing it. In the last part the paper tries to reflect the results of the earlier inquires to different dimensions of sovereignty. Through three different prisms-Legislatio, Legitimatio and Subordinatio-the paper compares each aspect of sovereignty to the lessons flowing from the case of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in order to get relevant insights concerning the transformation of sovereignty.In conclusion, the paper argues that the classical 19th century approach of sovereignty is outdated because of the transformation of the global economic and political context. But, sovereignty, as a legal basis and legitimizing factor is still in play if the question is the protection of fundamental national interests. As it exactly happened in the case of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act which intends to protect a pillar-the confidence in corporate governance-of the basic structure of U.S. free market system.

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The main aim of this paper is to analyze certain features of the Hungarian legal education system with special regard to the role of practice. In its first parts it highlights those institutional and sociological dynamics that touched upon legal education during the last decades and briefly introduce the reader into the legal background of legal education. Concerning the role of practice the paper examines the role of seminary education compared to the general system of “lectures” as well as the recent constellation of clinical legal education in Hungary in detail. As conclusion, the paper argues that the growth of practice-oriented ways of teaching should lead toward the general acceptance of an educational conception in which theory and practice can work in harmony.

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This essay discusses Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Archipelago from the aspect of “law and literature”. As a starting point, it argues that its “legal” reading is of a high relevance, since it helps us to better understand both the reality of Soviet law and the achievements of our legal systems. In order to illustrate this, it examines various legal layers embedded in the work: legal history, sociology of the punishment, criminal investigation, organizational sociology and psychology, and legal theory. In addition, the essay also focuses on the role of Western Law as a contrast in Solzhenitsyn’s work, and analyzes its metaphorical language about law. To conclude, it argues that this book could caution lawyers of the consequences of a politically-oriented approach to law that disregards the fundamental values of Western law.

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The critical assessment of the legacy of socialist jurisprudence is amongst one of the most difficult tasks of the post-transitory Central-European legal thinking. This study provides a critical reading of the findings of Hungarian socialist legal sociology with respect to the description and analysis of the socialist legal culture. The discussion starts with the first comprehensive empirical survey on the legal knowledge of the population, designed and carried out by Kálmán Kulcsár in 1965 and ends with András Sajó’s synthesis on the nature of the Hungarian socialist legal culture elaborated in his monograph entitled Illusion and Reality in Law, published in 1986. The paper’s main conclusion is that this two decades long ‘golden age’ of Hungarian legal sociology offers many valid points in both methodological and substantive terms contrary to the fact that the various findings were mainly elaborated under the pressure of official Marxism-Leninism.

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A fertődi (a XVIII-XIX. századi névhasználat szerint eszterházai) marionettszínház és bábopera-játszás az európai kastélykultúra jelentős attrakciója volt. Az építtető főúr, Esterházy Miklós herceg mecenatúrája, valamint udvarának kiemelkedő művészei és mesterei - Joseph Haydn és Karl Michael von Pauersbach - a marionettszínházat páratlan kulturális értékké tették hazánkban. Az 1772-73 között felépült színház pompáját és kialakításának egyediségét a korabeli utazók egybehangzóan elismerték. Az épület eredeti rendeltetését már a XVIII. század végén elvesztette, majd 1845 után több ütemben magtárrá alakították át, s a XX. században már a teljes pusztulás fenyegette. A helyreállítást célzó tudományos kutatás a Műemlékek Állami Gondnoksága megbízásából 2004-ben kezdődött el. A helyszíni munka során alkalmazott „Bauforschung” módszer az épület legkisebb roncsolással járó részletes elemzését teszi lehetővé. Az alakhű építészeti felmérés egyik tudományos eredménye, hogy bizonyította egy 1789-es átalakítási tervrajz azonosítását az épülettel. A falszövet, a festés- és vakolatrétegek és más nyomok alapos megfigyelése és rajzi dokumentálása lehetővé tette a marionettszínház átépítési periódusainak körvonalazását, továbbá az épület XVIII. századi - eredeti - tömeg- és téralakításának, homlokzatképzésének és fedélszerkezetének elvi rekonstrukcióját. A további kutatás - elsősorban a hitelesítő régészeti ásatások - a teljesen elpusztult gazdag belső dekoráció és a színpadtechnika történeti leírásokból ismert kialakításának bizonyítékait hozhatja felszínre.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Viktória Bőhm, Dávid Fekete, Gábor Balázs, László Gáspár, and Noémi Kappel

In order to evaluate the salinity tolerance of grafted watermelon, two sets of experiments were conducted in a growing chamber where ‘Esmeralda’ varieties were grafted onto interspecific squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. × Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and Lagenaria siceraria rootstocks. Both non-grafted and self-garfted plants were used for control. For salt stress, 2.85 and 4.28 mM/l substrate doses of NaCl were added with each irrigation in 2 day intervals for a duration of 23 days. Interspecific-grafted plants showed the highest salinity tolerance as plant biomass and leaf area were not decreased but improved by salinity in most cases. Furthermore, transpiration and photosynthesis activity did not decrease as much as it did in the case of other grafting combinations. Interspecific and Lagenaria rootstocks showed sodium retention, as elevation of Na+ content in the leaves of these grafting combinations was negligible compared to self-grafted and non-grafted ones. Presumably abiotic stress tolerance can be enhanced by grafting per se considering measured parameters of self-grafted plants did not decrease as much as seen in non-grafted ones.

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