This paper investigates the basic syntax of verbal particles in Hungarian, proposing a two-stage syntactic derivation involving phrasal movement. The verbal particle first comes to occupy a verb phrase medial position, a stage that is followed by phrasal movement to a verb phrase external landing site. Here—in neutral clauses—the verbal particle immediately precedes the verb, which is also shown to leave the vP at surface structure. The verb phrase medial position of the verbal particle is identified as the specifier of a PredP flanked between vP and VP, while the verb phrase external landing site is analyzed as the specifier of TP. The adjacency of the particle and the verb is argued to be reducible to the specifier-head configuration they appear in, rather than to syntactic incorporation or to a PF-merger operation.
Logical scope interpretation and sentence prosody exhibit intricate, yet scarcely studied interrelations across a variety of languages and constructions. Despite these observable interrelations, it is not clear whether quantifier scope by itself is able to directly affect prosodic form. Information structure is a key potential confounding factor, as it appears to richly interact both with scope interpretation and with prosodic form.
To address this complication, the current study investigates, based on data from Hungarian, whether quantifier scope is expressed prosodically if information structure is kept in check. A production experiment is presented that investigates grammatically scope ambiguous doubly quantified sentences with varied focus structures, while lacking a syntactically marked topic or focus. In contrast to the information structural manipulation, which is manifest in the analysis of the acoustic data, the results reveal no prosodic effect of quantifier scope, nor the interaction of scope with information structure. This finding casts doubt on the notion that logical scope can receive direct prosodic expression, and it indirectly corroborates the restrictive view instead that scope interpretation is encoded in prosody only in cases in which it is a free rider on information structure.
In this study, we report on the production of bulb scale-derived tissue cultures capable of efficient shoot and plant regeneration in three genotypes of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L., Amaryllidaceae), a protected ornamental plant. For culture line A, high auxin and low cytokinin concentration is required for callus production and plant regeneration. The type of auxin is of key importance: α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at concentrations of 2 mg L−1 or 2–10 mg L−1 NAA with 1 mg L−1 N6-benzyladenine (BA), a cytokinin on full-strength media are required for regeneration. Cultures showing regeneration were embryogenic. When lines B and C were induced and maintained with 2 mg L−1 NAA and 1 mg L−1 BA, they produced mature bulblets with shoots, without roots. Line A produced immature bulblets with shoots under the above culture condition. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that (i) genetic differences between line A and its bulb explants were not significant, therefore these tissue cultures are suitable for germplasm preservation, and (ii) different morphogenetic responses of lines A, B and C originated from genetic differences. Culture line A is suitable for field-growing, cultivation and germplasm preservation of G. nivalis and for the production of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids.