The treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with antiretroviral (ARV) medications has revolutionised the care for these patients. The dramatic increase in life expectancy has brought new challenges in treating diseases of aging in this cohort. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality with risk matched HIV-positive patients having double the risk of MI compared to HIV-negative patients. This enhanced risk is secondary to the interplay the virus (and accessory proteins), ARV medications and traditional risk factors. The culmination of these factors can lead to a hybrid metabolic syndrome characterised by heightened ectopic fat. Cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) is ideal for quantifying epicardial adipose tissue volumes, hepatosteatosis and cardiovascular disease burden. The CVD risk attributed to disease burden and plaque morphology is well established in general populations but is less clear in HIV populations. The purpose of this review article is to appraise the latest data on CVD development in HIV-positive patients and how the use of cardiovascular CT may be used to enhance risk prediction in this population. This may have important implications on individualised treatment decisions and risk reduction strategies which will improve the care of these patients.