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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gallic acid (GA) on frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa. Four Honamli goat bucks were used at their breeding season, and ejaculates were collected by an electroejaculator. Mixed semen was divided into the following four groups: control (0 mM), low (L; 1 mM), medium (M; 2 mM), and high (H; 4 mM) concentration of GA. All the groups were frozen and thawed in a water bath for spermatological evaluation. The lowest motility was observed in the control group (47.60 ± 5.70%) (P < 0.05), while the highest viability (62.45 ± 1.68%), plasma membrane and acrosome integrity (44.81 ± 4.57%), and high mitochondrial membrane potential (35.96 ± 2.50%) were observed in the low GA group (P < 0.05). Also, the lowest hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS +) value was found in the high GA group (47.60 ± 4.82%) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing a low concentration (1 mM) of GA to the Tris-based semen extender had a positive effect on spermatological parameters after freeze-thawing of Honamli goat semen. Further studies should be continued in other species with different doses and combinations using commercial and/or homemade semen extenders.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Yiğit Çanga
Tolga Sinan Güvenç
Mehmet Baran Karataş
Tahir Bezgin
Bariş Güngör
Rengin Çetin
, and
Osman Bolca

Type IV dual left anterior descending artery (LAD) anomaly constitutes a rare subset of coronary anomalies in which the anterior and anterolateral wall of the left ventricle is supplied by a short LAD originating from the left coronary artery along with a long LAD that originates from the right sinus of Valsalva. Albeit rare, the angiographic presentation is challenging since the appearance of the short LAD is similar to a total occlusion beyond first few diagonal or septal branches. Here, we present a series of four cases with type IV dual LAD anomaly with different clinical and angiographic presentations.

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