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Seeing the forest through different trees: A social psychological perspective of work addiction

Commentary on: Ten myths about work addiction (Griffiths et al., 2018)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: István Tóth-Király, Beáta Bőthe and Gábor Orosz

We live in exciting times for the scientific study of work addiction, given its increased relevance and the diverse perspectives one might take to approach this phenomenon. Simultaneously, this field does not appear to be unified as a result of several misleading myths, which are addressed by the debate paper of Griffiths et al. (2018). In response, we would like to complement this study by proposing that the construct of interest should be more precisely identified in the context of related constructs and that an integrative framework should be applied, which is able to take into account not just the micro-level characteristics (i.e., individual differences), but meso- (i.e., environmental factors) and macro-level (i.e., societal factors) ones as well.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

The past-year prevalence of problematic pornography use (PPU) was 1–6% in adult populations. As a result of treatment obstacles and barriers, such as unaffordable treatments, only a minority of problematic pornography users may seek treatment. Having a free, online, self-help program may overcome treatment barriers and may help those individuals who cannot receive traditional or offline treatment for PPU. Although the effectiveness of such online programs reducing substance use and problematic gambling have been reported, no prior study has examined the efficacy of an online self-help intervention aiming to reduce PPU.

Methods

This two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) will examine the effectiveness of an online self-help program (Hands-off) to reduce PPU, while also considering psychopathological comorbidities. The six-week intervention condition includes six core modules developed to reduce PPU based on motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness, and wise social-psychological intervention techniques. The target sample size is 242 participants. Self-report questionnaires will be administered at baseline, right after the end of the intervention, at one-month, and three-month follow-ups after the end of the intervention. The primary outcome will be the level of PPU. Secondary outcomes will include pornography use frequency, pornography craving, pornography use-avoidance self-efficacy, sex mindset, sexual satisfaction, negative and positive emotions, and life satisfaction. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed models.

Results

Results will be reported at conferences and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. The participants will be sent a lay-person-friendly summary of the results via e-mail.

Open access

Background and aims

Tinder is a very popular smartphone-based geolocated dating application. The goal of the present study was creating a short Problematic Tinder Use Scale (PTUS).

Methods

Griffiths’ () six-component model was implemented for covering all components of problematic Tinder use. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out on a Tinder user sample (N = 430).

Results

Both the 12- and the 6-item versions were tested. The 6-item unidimensional structure has appropriate reliability and factor structure. No salient demography-related differences were found. Users irrespectively to their relationship status have similar scores on PTUS.

Discussion

Tinder users deserve the attention of scientific examination considering their large proportion among smartphone users. It is especially true considering the emerging trend of geolocated online dating applications.

Conclusions

Before PTUS, no prior scale has been created to measure problematic Tinder use. The PTUS is a suitable and reliable measure to assess problematic Tinder use.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Beáta Bőthe, Marc N. Potenza, Mark D. Griffiths, Shane W. Kraus, Verena Klein, Johannes Fuss and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background

Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is included in the eleventh edition of The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as an impulse-control disorder.

Aims

The aim of the present work was to develop a scale (Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale–CSBD-19) that can reliably and validly assess CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines.

Method

Four independent samples of 9,325 individuals completed self-reported measures from three countries (the United States, Hungary, and Germany). The psychometric properties of the CSBD-19 were examined in terms of factor structure, reliability, measurement invariance, and theoretically relevant correlates. A potential threshold was determined to identify individuals with an elevated risk of CSBD.

Results

The five-factor model of the CSBD-19 (i.e., control, salience, relapse, dissatisfaction, and negative consequences) had an excellent fit to the data and demonstrated appropriate associations with the correlates. Measurement invariance suggested that the CSBD-19 functions similarly across languages. Men had higher means than women. A score of 50 points was found as an optimal threshold to identify individuals at high-risk of CSBD.

Conclusions

The CSBD-19 is a short, valid, and reliable measure of potential CSBD based on ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines. Its use in large-scale, cross-cultural studies may promote the identification and understanding of individuals with a high risk of CSBD.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Gábor Orosz, Mária Benyó, Bernadett Berkes, Edina Nikoletti, Éva Gál, István Tóth-Király and Beáta Bőthe

Background and aims

Tinder is a geo-located online dating application, which is present in almost 200 countries and has 10 million daily users. The aim of the present research was to investigate the motivational, personality, and basic psychological need-related background of problematic Tinder use.

Methods

After qualitative pretest and item construction, in Study 1 (N = 414), confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to corroborate the different motivational factors behind Tinder use. In Study 2 (N = 346), the associations between Big Five traits, Tinder motivations, and problematic Tinder use were examined with structural equation modeling (SEM). In Study 3 (N = 298), the potential role of general self-esteem, relatedness need satisfaction, and frustration in relation to Tinder-use motivations and problematic Tinder use was examined with SEM.

Results

In Study 1, a 16-item first-order factor structure was identified with four motivational factors, such as sex, love, self-esteem enhancement, and boredom. In Study 2, problematic Tinder use was mainly related to using Tinder for self-esteem enhancement. The Big Five personality factors were only weakly related to the four motivations and to problematic Tinder use. Counterintuitively, Study 3 showed that instead of global self-esteem, relatedness need frustration was the strongest predictor of self-esteem enhancement Tinder-use motivation which, in turn, was the strongest predictor of problematic Tinder use.

Discussion

Four motivational factors were identified as predictors of problematic use with need frustration being a relevant background variable instead of general personality traits.

Open access

Background and aims

The goal of the present study was to create a short ProblematicSeries Watching Scale (PSWS).

Methods

On the basis of the six components model of Griffiths (), six items were identifiedcovering all components of problematic series watching. Confirmatoryfactor analyses were carried out on two independent samples (N1 = 366, N2 = 752).

Results

The PSWS has appropriate factor structure and reliability. Theamount of free time was not, but the series watching time was associatedwith PSWS scores. Women had higher scores than men.

Discussion

Before PSWS, no prior scale has been created to measure problematicseries watching. Further research is needed to properly assess itsvalidity and reliability; and for examining whether extensive serieswatching can lead to health-related and psychosocial problems.

Conclusions

In the increasingly digitalized world there are many motivationalforces which encourage people watching online series. In the lightof these changes, research on problematic series watching will beprogressively relevant.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: István Tóth-Király, Beáta Bőthe, Eszter Tóth-Fáber, Győző Hága and Gábor Orosz

Background and aims

Television series watching stepped into a new golden age with the appearance of online series. Being highly involved in series could potentially lead to negative outcomes, but the distinction between highly engaged and problematic viewers should be distinguished. As no appropriate measure is available for identifying such differences, a short and valid measure was constructed in a multistudy investigation: the Series Watching Engagement Scale (SWES).

Methods

In Study 1 (N Sample1 = 740 and N Sample2 = 740), exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis were used to identify the most important facets of series watching engagement. In Study 2 (N = 944), measurement invariance of the SWES was investigated between males and females. In Study 3 (N = 1,520), latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify subgroups of viewers.

Results

Five factors of engagement were identified in Study 1 that are of major relevance: persistence, identification, social interaction, overuse, and self-development. Study 2 supported the high levels of equivalence between males and females. In Study 3, three groups of viewers (low-, medium-, and high-engagement viewers) were identified. The highly engaged at-risk group can be differentiated from the other two along key variables of watching time and personality.

Discussion

The present findings support the overall validity, reliability, and usefulness of the SWES and the results of the LPA showed that it might be useful to identify at-risk viewers before the development of problematic use.

Open access