Building on the conclusions of the debate papers by Gola et al. (2022) and Sassover and Weinstein (2022), the present commentary further addressed the contradictions between the current classification, nomenclature, and diagnostic criteria of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) with elaborating on the potential roles impulsivity and compulsivity may play in CSBD, and how these characteristics may relate to addictive behaviors in particular. Moreover, it briefly discussed how the classification of CSBD might impact research and clinical practice and proposed potential future research directions that may help to reach a consensus on the classification and core symptoms of CSBD.
We live in exciting times for the scientific study of work addiction, given its increased relevance and the diverse perspectives one might take to approach this phenomenon. Simultaneously, this field does not appear to be unified as a result of several misleading myths, which are addressed by the debate paper of Griffiths et al. (2018). In response, we would like to complement this study by proposing that the construct of interest should be more precisely identified in the context of related constructs and that an integrative framework should be applied, which is able to take into account not just the micro-level characteristics (i.e., individual differences), but meso- (i.e., environmental factors) and macro-level (i.e., societal factors) ones as well.
Tinder is a very popular smartphone-based geolocated dating application. The goal of the present study was creating a short Problematic Tinder Use Scale (PTUS).
Griffiths’ () six-component model was implemented for covering all components of problematic Tinder use. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out on a Tinder user sample (N = 430).
Both the 12- and the 6-item versions were tested. The 6-item unidimensional structure has appropriate reliability and factor structure. No salient demography-related differences were found. Users irrespectively to their relationship status have similar scores on PTUS.
Tinder users deserve the attention of scientific examination considering their large proportion among smartphone users. It is especially true considering the emerging trend of geolocated online dating applications.
Before PTUS, no prior scale has been created to measure problematic Tinder use. The PTUS is a suitable and reliable measure to assess problematic Tinder use.
The goal of the present study was to create a short ProblematicSeries Watching Scale (PSWS).
On the basis of the six components model of Griffiths (), six items were identifiedcovering all components of problematic series watching. Confirmatoryfactor analyses were carried out on two independent samples (N1 = 366, N2 = 752).
The PSWS has appropriate factor structure and reliability. Theamount of free time was not, but the series watching time was associatedwith PSWS scores. Women had higher scores than men.
Before PSWS, no prior scale has been created to measure problematicseries watching. Further research is needed to properly assess itsvalidity and reliability; and for examining whether extensive serieswatching can lead to health-related and psychosocial problems.
In the increasingly digitalized world there are many motivationalforces which encourage people watching online series. In the lightof these changes, research on problematic series watching will beprogressively relevant.
Limitations of research into sexuality and compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) include the use of simplistic methodological designs and the absence of quality and unified measurements, empirically supported theoretical models, and large, collaborative studies between laboratories. We aim to fill these gaps with the International Sex Survey (ISS, http://internationalsexsurvey.org/).
The ISS is a large-scale, international, multi-lab, multi-language study using cross-sectional survey methods, involving more than 40 countries. Participants responding to advertisements complete a self-report, anonymous survey on a secure online platform. Collaborators from each country collect a community sample of adults with a minimum sample size of 2,000 participants with a gender ratio of approximately 50–50% men and women, including diverse individuals with respect to sexuality and gender. The ISS includes a wide range of sociodemographic questions and scales assessing a diverse set of sexual behaviors, pornography use, psychological characteristics, and potential comorbid disorders. Analyses are conducted within a structural equation modeling framework, including variable (e.g., measurement invariance tests) and person-centered approaches (e.g., latent profile analysis).
Discussion and conclusions
The ISS will provide well-validated, publicly available screening tools, helping to eliminate significant measurement issues in the field of sexuality research and health care. It will provide important insights to improve the theoretical understanding of CSBD as well as help to identify empirically supported treatment targets for prevention and intervention programs. Following open-science practices and making study materials open-access, the ISS may serve as a blueprint for future large-scale research in addiction and sexuality research.
The past-year prevalence of problematic pornography use (PPU) was 1–6% in adult populations. As a result of treatment obstacles and barriers, such as unaffordable treatments, only a minority of problematic pornography users may seek treatment. Having a free, online, self-help program may overcome treatment barriers and may help those individuals who cannot receive traditional or offline treatment for PPU. Although the effectiveness of such online programs reducing substance use and problematic gambling have been reported, no prior study has examined the efficacy of an online self-help intervention aiming to reduce PPU.
This two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) will examine the effectiveness of an online self-help program (Hands-off) to reduce PPU, while also considering psychopathological comorbidities. The six-week intervention condition includes six core modules developed to reduce PPU based on motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness, and wise social-psychological intervention techniques. The target sample size is 242 participants. Self-report questionnaires will be administered at baseline, right after the end of the intervention, at one-month, and three-month follow-ups after the end of the intervention. The primary outcome will be the level of PPU. Secondary outcomes will include pornography use frequency, pornography craving, pornography use-avoidance self-efficacy, sex mindset, sexual satisfaction, negative and positive emotions, and life satisfaction. Data will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed models.
Results will be reported at conferences and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. The participants will be sent a lay-person-friendly summary of the results via e-mail.
Despite problematic pornography use (PPU) being prevalent, no previous study has examined the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for PPU, using rigorous methods. Using a two-armed randomized controlled trial study design, we examined the feasibility and initial effectiveness of a six-week online PPU intervention.
We recruited 264 participants (3.8% women, Mage = 33.2, SD = 10.6) who were randomized and assigned to either the self-help intervention (n = 123) or waitlist control condition (n = 141), and completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and after the end of the intervention (six-week follow-up). Multivariable linear regression models were generated and tested on a complete case basis to investigate possible treatment effects. Participants provided quantitative and qualitative feedback regarding the intervention’s content and appearance.
Participants evaluated all modules positively in the intervention in general. There were differential dropout rates (89.4% in intervention vs. 44.7% in control group) with an overall follow-up rate of 34.5%. The intervention group reported significantly lower levels of PPU (P < 0.001, d = 1.32) at the six-week follow-up. Moreover, they reported lower pornography use frequency (P < 0.001, d = 1.65), self-perceived pornography addiction (P = 0.01, d = 0.85), pornography craving (P = 0.02, d = 0.40), and higher pornography avoidance self-efficacy (P = 0.001, d = 0.87) at the six-week follow-up.
Discussion and Conclusions
The present study was only a first step in rigorous treatment studies for PPU, but the findings are promising and suggest that online interventions for PPU might help reduce PPU in some cases, even without the guidance of therapists, by reducing treatment barriers.
Tinder is a geo-located online dating application, which is present in almost 200 countries and has 10 million daily users. The aim of the present research was to investigate the motivational, personality, and basic psychological need-related background of problematic Tinder use.
After qualitative pretest and item construction, in Study 1 (N = 414), confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to corroborate the different motivational factors behind Tinder use. In Study 2 (N = 346), the associations between Big Five traits, Tinder motivations, and problematic Tinder use were examined with structural equation modeling (SEM). In Study 3 (N = 298), the potential role of general self-esteem, relatedness need satisfaction, and frustration in relation to Tinder-use motivations and problematic Tinder use was examined with SEM.
In Study 1, a 16-item first-order factor structure was identified with four motivational factors, such as sex, love, self-esteem enhancement, and boredom. In Study 2, problematic Tinder use was mainly related to using Tinder for self-esteem enhancement. The Big Five personality factors were only weakly related to the four motivations and to problematic Tinder use. Counterintuitively, Study 3 showed that instead of global self-esteem, relatedness need frustration was the strongest predictor of self-esteem enhancement Tinder-use motivation which, in turn, was the strongest predictor of problematic Tinder use.
Four motivational factors were identified as predictors of problematic use with need frustration being a relevant background variable instead of general personality traits.
Television series watching stepped into a new golden age with the appearance of online series. Being highly involved in series could potentially lead to negative outcomes, but the distinction between highly engaged and problematic viewers should be distinguished. As no appropriate measure is available for identifying such differences, a short and valid measure was constructed in a multistudy investigation: the Series Watching Engagement Scale (SWES).
In Study 1 (NSample1 = 740 and NSample2 = 740), exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis were used to identify the most important facets of series watching engagement. In Study 2 (N = 944), measurement invariance of the SWES was investigated between males and females. In Study 3 (N = 1,520), latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify subgroups of viewers.
Five factors of engagement were identified in Study 1 that are of major relevance: persistence, identification, social interaction, overuse, and self-development. Study 2 supported the high levels of equivalence between males and females. In Study 3, three groups of viewers (low-, medium-, and high-engagement viewers) were identified. The highly engaged at-risk group can be differentiated from the other two along key variables of watching time and personality.
The present findings support the overall validity, reliability, and usefulness of the SWES and the results of the LPA showed that it might be useful to identify at-risk viewers before the development of problematic use.
Little data exist on exploring the subgroups and characteristics of problematic pornography use (PPU) in help-seeking adolescents. The aims of the study were to classify the subgroups among help-seeking male adolescents, explore their similarities and differences, and uncover their core symptoms.
A total of 3,468 Chinese male adolescents (Mage = 16.64 years, SD = 1.24) who were distressed about their pornography use were recruited. The Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale, the Brief Pornography Screen Scale, and Moral Disapproval of Pornography Use were used to classify them. The General Health Questionnaire, the Pornography Craving Questionnaire, and the Sexual Compulsivity Scale were used to investigate participants' negative consequence related to their pornography use; and the Online Sexual Activity Questionnaire (OSAs) and time spent on pornography use every week were considered as quantitative indicators.
Help-seeking male adolescents could be divided into 3 profiles, namely, self-perceived problematic (SP, n = 755), impaired control (IC, n = 1,656), and problematic use groups (PPU, n = 1,057). Frequency of OSAs was important for the identification of SP individuals, while negative consequences were more effective in identifying individuals with objective dysregulated behavior. Salience and mood modification were shared by all groups; however, in addition to this, the SP and PPU groups also showed withdrawal symptoms.
Discussion and conclusion
This study's results provide support for the presence of different profiles of help-seeking individuals and information on potential intervention targets among adolescents which is lacking in the literature.