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- Author or Editor: Belle Gavriel-Fried x
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Background and aims
The concept of recovery capital (RC) describes the internal and external resources that individuals draw upon to initiate and sustain the processes of addiction recovery. This concept has been primarily applied to individuals recovering from substance addictions. In this study, the RC concept was applied to individuals with a gambling disorder (GD) to test its associations with the diagnosis and severity of GD and with levels of psychopathology as manifested in depression and anxiety.
A sample of 140 individuals who recovered or did not recover from a GD was drawn from lists of former and currently treated individuals in five gambling treatment centers in Israel. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for GD, Assessment of Recovery Capital and Brief Assessment of Recovery Capital Scales adapted to Gambling, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 which measures depression were used.
RC clearly distinguishes between individuals who have recovered from GD and those who have not. A structural equation model showed significant negative associations between RC and GD severity, depression, and generalized anxiety. The associations between GD severity and depression and anxiety were not significant. However, when omitting the path between RC and depression/anxiety, the associations between GD and depression/anxiety became significant.
RC plays an important role in GD severity and diagnosis, as well as in psychopathology. This study extends the concept of RC to the area of gambling and contributes to the growing body of studies that have found parallels and common denominators between substance addiction and behavioral addictions.
Understanding gender-related differences is important in recovery processes. Previous studies have investigated gender-related differences in factors associated with gambling disorder (GD), but none to date have considered both positive and negative resources related to recovery. Using a recovery capital (RC) framework that considers multiple resources available during recovery, this study examined gender-related similarities and differences in associations between positive resources (RC, spirituality) and negative experiences and states (stressful life events, depression, and anxiety) and GD symptom improvement.
One hundred and forty individuals with lifetime GD (101 men) were assessed using DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for GD (past-year and lifetime prior to past-year), the Brief Assessment of RC, the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, the Stressful Life-events Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 for depression. Multiple linear regression and Bayesian statistical analyses were conducted.
RC was positively and significantly associated with GD symptom improvement in women and men. Stressful life events were negatively associated with GD symptom improvement only in men.
RC is an important positive resource for men and women recovering from GD and should be considered in treating both women and men. Understanding specific RC factors across gender groups and stressors, particularly in men, may aid in developing improved interventions for GD.
Background and aims
Recovery is a challenge for individuals coping with a gambling disorder (GD). Recovery capital (RC) is a conceptual framework describing positive external and internal (e.g., human, social, community and financial) resources that promote recovery. Negative RC relates to external and internal obstacles to recovery. To date, no scale has captured both positive and negative RC items in the gambling field. Based on the RC framework, this pilot study aimed to develop The Holistic Recovery Capital in Gambling Disorder (HRC-GD) instrument, and to explore its associations with recovery status, measures of psychopathology and happiness. We hypothesized that higher HRC-GD scores will be positively related to recovery and subjective happiness, but negatively linked to depression, anxiety, and gambling severity.
Recovered and non-recovered individuals with a lifetime DSM-5 GD (n = 164) completed the HRC-GD instrument, the DSM-5 GD diagnostic criteria, and measures of depression, anxiety, and subjective happiness.
Through a process of item reduction, which included a principal components analysis, 19 items were retained. Since exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded uninterpretable findings, an index score reflecting human, financial, community, and social resources and obstacles was calculated. HRC-GD index scores were negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, and GD symptom severity, but positively related with subjective happiness. Index scores were significantly associated with recovery status.
The HRC-GD index holds promise as a new tool for measuring RC in GD. Additional research is needed to validate this index using larger and more ethnically and gender diverse clinical and community samples of individuals with GD.
Recovery from mental health and behavioral disorders is classically defined as a reduction in symptoms. More recent definitions see it as a process in which individuals improve their health, wellness and other life domains. The inclusion of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th International Classification of Diseases in 2019 prompted growing interest in GD. However, relatively little is known about recovery from GD, and there is scant literature describing or assessing its course.
This scoping review was designed to explore the state of the art on recovery from GD (e.g., terminology and measures used to assess recovery, main topics in studies about recovery from GD).
PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched and critically reviewed according to PRISMA guidelines. We included empirical studies in English covering individuals across all age groups who met the diagnostic criteria of GD/internet gaming disorder (IGD) according to valid scales that relate to recovery or any change, and were published before February 2022.
A total of 47 out of 966 studies met the inclusion criteria. Recovery as a concept is not explicitly mentioned in GD studies. Rather, changes in subjects' disorders are described in terms of decreases/reductions in symptom severity, or improvement/increases. These changes are primarily measured by scales that evaluate symptom reduction and/or improvement in GD and other psychopathologies.
The concept of recovery is included in the GD field but is not clearly mentioned or used. Therapists and researchers should aim to promote and integrate the notion of recovery in GD.
The prevalence of gambling disorder (GD) in women has increased, but, to date, few studies have explored the features of clinical GD subtypes in female samples.
The aim of this study is to identify empirical clusters based on clinical/sociodemographic variables in a sample of treatment-seeking women with GD.
Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was applied to a sample of n = 280 patients, using sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and personality traits as indicators for the grouping procedure.
Three mutually exclusive groups were obtained: (a) Cluster 1 (highly dysfunctional; n = 82, 29.3%) endorsed the highest levels in gambling severity, comorbid psychopathology, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence, and the lowest scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness; (b) Cluster 2 (dysfunctional; n = 142, 50.7%) achieved medium mean scores in gambling severity and psychopathological symptoms; and (c) Cluster 3 (functional; n = 56, 20.0%) obtained the lowest mean scores in gambling severity and in psychopathology, and a personality profile characterized by low levels in novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence, and the highest levels in self-directedness and cooperativeness.
Discussion and conclusions
This study sheds light on the clinical heterogeneity of women suffering from GD. Identifying the differing features of women with GD is vital to developing prevention programs and personalized treatment protocols for this overlooked population.