After the establishment of the Mughal Empire, in Hindustan “guest workers” of Turkic origin started to move to India. They came from various places and represented all walks of life: Uzbegs from Transoxania, Afshars, Baharlus, Bayats from Iran, people from the various Turkic tribes of Khurasan. The Qaqshals, members of a clan of Turkic (Turkmen) origin who played an important role in early Mughal conquests came somewhere from the central parts of modern Afghanistan. They joined the retinue of Humâyûn and Bayrâm Khan in Kabul when the emperor set off to reconquest his realm and fought in almost all important campaigns of Akbar. Though they rebelled in the 1580s those members who repented were eventually pardoned. The present article tries to explore the origins and ethnic background of the Qaqshal clan and trace down the career of the clan’s most illustrious members in contemporary sources.
Unlike his Ottoman contemporaries, Yavuz Sultan Selïm composed his poems almost exclusively in Persian. A great part of his poetic output consists of poetic replies inspired by the classics of the Persian poetic canon as it was perceived by Ottomans. Through an in depth analysis of four imitation poems inspired by four ghazals by Häfiẓ the present paper aims at highlighting the poetic strategies Selïm used when he composed poetic imitations.
Cannabis sativa L. is one of the most popular psychoactive plants in our days. It is widely used as a medicine, a recreational drug and also as an entheogen. Archaeological findings suggest that the hemp plant was known in China as early as the 5th millennium B.C. The first written source documenting the use of cannabis as a drug is from a much later period and dates back to the 5th century B.C. The present paper offers an outline of the history of the use of cannabis as a mind altering drug among Turkic peoples from ancient times up to the late 15th century, a period of flourishing cannabis subculture both in Anatolia and in Central Asia.