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  • Author or Editor: Bibi Bazzaz x
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Previous studies showed that methylxanthines increased the antimicrobial activity of gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, the effect of non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors (methylxanthines: aminophylline and caffeine) and partially selective PDE inhibitors, dipyridamole and sildenafil, was evaluated on the antimicrobial activity of gentamicin using checkerboard method. Aminophylline at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg/ml reduced the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin (2 μg/ml) 2 and 4 times against S. aureus, and at concentrations of 0.5 and 2 mg/ml reduced the MIC of gentamicin (4 μg/ml) 2 and 4 times, respectively, against P. aeruginosa. Caffeine at concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/ml reduced the MIC of gentamicin (2 μg/ml) 4 and 32 times against S. aureus, and at concentrations of 0.12 and 2 mg/ml reduced the MIC of gentamicin (4 μg/ml) 2 and 4 times, respectively, against P. aeruginosa. However, dipyridamole and sildenafil (32 μg/ml) did not show any effect on MIC of gentamicin against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that methylxanthines could increase gentamicin effects against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa but this effect is not mediated by inhibition of PDE 5, 6, 8, 10 and 11.

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This study was conducted at a 900+ bed general teaching hospital, from May to September 2007, in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and their antimicrobial pattern. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the phenotypic disk confirmatory test were performed for each isolate. The total of 206 isolates including 106 E. coli and 100 K. pneumoniae were collected of which 122 isolates (59.2%) were ESBL positive. The prevalence of ESBL-producing strains was 59.2% (122/206). All the isolates were susceptible to imipenem. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, the sensitivity was from 3.3% to 61.5% for ampicillin to aztreonam. From female isolates (136), 59.5% and from male isolates (70), 58.6% were ESBL-producers. Ratios of isolates from hospitalized patients to out-patients were 94/28 in the ESBL-producing group. The number of ESBL-producing isolates according to the isolation sites showed a significant difference between ESBL-producers and non-producers in blood samples ( P <0.05). This study shows that the prevalence of ESBL strains in Iran is high. It seems necessary for clinicians and medical community personnel to be fully aware of ESBL-producing microorganisms.

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