Monascus pigments, which are produced by various species of Monascus, often have been used as a natural colourant and as traditional natural food additives, especially in Southern China, Japan and Southeastern Asia. The limitation of wide using Monascus pigment is attributed to one of its secondary metabolites named citrinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment and citrinin production via submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SF) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Monascus purpureus AS3.531. The optimal fermentation temperature and pH were significantly different for pigment production through different fermentation mode (35 °C, pH 5.0 for SF and 32 °C, pH 5.5 for SmF, respectively). Adding 2% (w/v) of glycerol in the medium could enhance the pigment production. On the optimized condition, although the concentration of citrinin produced by SmF (19.02 ug/g) increased more than 100 times than that by SF (0.018 ug/g), the pigment yield by SmF (7.93 U/g/g) could be comparable to that by SF (6.63 U/g/g). Those indicate us that fermentation mode seems to be the primary factor which influence the citrinin yield and secondary factor for pigment production.
Impaired behavioral inhibitory control (BIC) is known to play a crucial role in addictive behavior. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for cybersex addiction. This study aimed to investigate the time course of BIC in male individuals with tendencies towards cybersex addiction (TCA) using event-related potentials (ERPs) and to provide neurophysiological evidence of their deficient BIC.
Thirty-six individuals with TCA and 36 healthy controls (HCs) were given a Two-Choice Oddball task that required them to respond differently to frequent standard stimuli (images of people) and infrequent deviant stimuli (pornographic images) within 1,000 ms. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded as the participants performed the task.
Despite the similarity of standard stimuli between the groups in terms of reaction times (RTs), the RTs of the TCA group to deviant stimuli were much slower than those of the HC group. The behavioral difference was accompanied by group differences in the averaged amplitudes of N2 (200–300 ms) and P3 (300–500 ms) components in the deviant-standard difference wave. More specifically, compared to the HC group, the TCA group demonstrated smaller N2 and P3 amplitude differences for deviant than standard stimuli.
Discussion and conclusions
Individuals with TCA were more impulsive than HC participants and shared neuropsychological and ERP characteristics of substance use disorder or behavioral addictions, which supports the view that cybersex addiction can be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction.
The antibacterial effect of Curcumin on Staphylococcus aureus growth was evaluated by microcalorimetry. The heat flow power–time curves and nine quantitative parameters of the S. aureus growth were applied to investigate the inhibitory effect with Curcumin. By analyzing these curves and some quantitative parameters using multivariate analytical methods, similarity analysis and principal component analysis, the antibacterial activity of Curcumin on S. aureus could be accurately evaluated from the change of the two main parameters, the second exponential growth rate constant k2 and the maximum heat flow power Pm2. The main two thermal parameters played more important role in the evaluation: at low concentration (0–10.5 μg mL−1), Curcumin hardly influence the growth of S. aureus, while at high concentration (10.5–43.4 μg mL−1) it could notably inhibit the growth. All these illustrated that the antibacterial activity of Curcumin on S. aureus was enhanced with the increase of the concentration of this compound. This study might provide an useful method and idea accurately evaluate the antibacterial effects of Curcumin, which provides some useful methods for evaluate the nature antibacterial agents.
Authors:Xingfeng Li, Cheng Jin, Wei Liu, Jian Zhou, Weijun Kong, Bing Dai, Jiabo Wang, Dan Yan, Yanling Zhao, Yun Luo and Xiaohe Xiao
Using microcalorimetry, the characteristic metabolic heat flow power-time curves of S. aureus growth affected by Ursodesoxycholic acid and Hyodeoxycholic acid were measured at 37 °C. The thermal-kinetic parameters such as, growth rate constant k, the maximum power output (Pm), the time corresponding to the maximum power output (tp), total heat-production Qt, half inhibitory concentration of the drugs (IC50) were calculated from the growth curves. For both HDCA and UDCA, with the increasing of concentration, k, Pm, and Qt decreased, meanwhile, k–c fit a linear equation, tp was prolonged correspondingly. Principle component analysis, the results indicated tp might be the main parameter in evaluating the antibacterial activity of HDCA and UDCA in microcalorimetric method. Combining with tp and IC50, the results revealed that the differences and trends of antibacterial activity of these bile acid derivatives were: HDCA > UDCA. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis showed that the α-OH at C-3 and C-6 position at equal pace on the steroid nucleus enhanced the hydrophilicity of HDCA, which led to a stronger antibacterial effect than UDCA. In this study, a useful tool was provided to accurately evaluate the antibacterial effects of bile acid derivatives. The thermolysis curve recorded by microcalorimetry could provide a lot of kinetic and thermodynamic information for the study of growth process of living microbial, which could be helpful in the screening of high efficacy antibacterial agents.