Authors:Olivera Djuric, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic, Bojan Jovanovic, and Vesna Bumbasirevic
We investigated the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in trauma emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU), to assess ED- and ICU-related predictors of BSI and to describe the most common bacteria causing BSI and their antimicrobial resistance markers. A prospective study was conducted in two trauma ICUs of the ED of Clinical Center of Serbia. Overall, 62 BSIs were diagnosed in 406 patients, of which 13 were catheter-related BSI (3.0/1,000 CVC-days) and 30 BSIs of unknown origin, while 15% were attributed to ED CVC exposure. Lactate ≥2 mmol/L and SOFA score were independent ED-related predictors of BSI, while CVC in place for >7 days and mechanical ventilation >7 days were significant ICU-related predictors. The most common bacteria recovered were Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were methicillin-resistant, whereas 66% of Enterococcus spp. were vancomycin-resistant. All isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, whereas 87.5% of P. aeruginosa and 95.8% of Acinetobacter spp. isolates were resistant to carbapenems. ED BSI contributes substantially to overall ICU incidence of BSI. Lactate level and SOFA score can help to identify patients with higher risk of developing BSI. Better overall and CVC-specific control measures in patients with trauma are needed.