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Abstract

Background

Decision-making and risk-taking behavior undergo developmental changes during adolescence. Disadvantageous decision-making and increased risk-taking may lead to problematic behaviors such as substance use and abuse, pathological gambling and excessive internet use.

Methods

Based on MEDLINE searches, this article reviews the literature on decision-making and risk-taking and their relationships to addiction vulnerability in youth.

Results

Decision-making and risk-taking behaviors involve brain areas that undergo developmental changes during puberty and young adulthood. Individual differences and peer pressure also relate importantly to decision-making and risk-taking.

Conclusions

Brain-based changes in emotional, motivational and cognitive processing may underlie risk-taking and decision-making propensities in adolescence, making this period a time of heightened vulnerability for engagement in addictive behaviors.

Open access

Artificial sweeteners were introduced in therapy as sugar substitutes for diabetic patients. Nowadays these substances are widely used for sugar substitution in low calorie drinks and sweets. Most commonly used products to date are saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, and acesulfam; maximum accepted daily intakes are stated for each one.A simple reverse phase (RP18) HPLC-UV method with direct detection (196 nm) was developed by us in order to measure the concentrations of the three sweeteners. No sample preparation is required, other than dilution. Limits of detection are 12 mg l−1, 0.5 mg l−1 and lower than 0.25 mg l−1 for cyclamate, aspartame and saccharine, respectively. Concentrations ranged between 113.14–280.07 mg l−1 in the case of cyclamate, 17.96–50.94 mg l-1 for saccharine, and 9.94–296.82 mg l−1 for aspartame.

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Introduction

Myocardial contractility of the left ventricle (LV) is related to arterial distensibility. Sport activity is frequently associated with changes in both LV and arterial functions. This study aimed to find correlations between three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived segmental LV deformation parameters and echocardiographically assessed aortic stiffness index (ASI) in athletes. This study comprised 26 young elite athletes (mean age: 26.7 ± 8.4 years, nine men).

Results

Among segmental circumferential strains (CSs), only that of apical anterior (r = 0.40, p = 0.05), septal (r = 0.47, p = 0.01), inferior (r = 0.59, p = 0.001), lateral (r = 0.44, p < 0.05), and midventricular anteroseptal (r = 0.44, p < 0.05) segments correlated with ASI, whereas LV-CS of the midventricular anterior segment showed a correlation tendency. Only longitudinal strain of basal anteroseptal (r = −0.46, p < 0.05) and inferoseptal (r = −0.57, p < 0.01) segments showed correlations with ASI, whereas that of the basal anterior segment had only a tendency to correlate. Some segmental multidirectional strains also correlated with ASI.

Conclusions

Correlations could be demonstrated between increased aortic stiffness and circular function of the apical and midventricular LV fibers and longitudinal motion of the basal septum and LV anterior wall (part of LV outflow tract) in maintaining circulation in the elite athletes.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: E. Nemes-Nagy, T. Szőcs-Molnár, I. Dunca, V. Balogh-Sămărghiţan, Şt. Hobai, R. Morar, D.L. Pusta, and E.C. Crăciun

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