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Abstract  

The selenium excreted in urine can be measured to assess the dietary status of selenium, an essential trace element in human nutrition. The objectives of this work were: 1) to develop a procedure, capable of high sample throughout, by which the major interferences can be reduced such that selenium concentrations can be measured in urine by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) using77mSe (17.4 s; and 2) to apply the method to a human dietary selenium study in which several selenium monitors were compared. The method involves a pre-irradiation arsenic-coprecipitation separation of the selenium from urine in the presence of a high specific-activity75Se tracer. The processed urine samples are analyzed using NAA. The procedure was applied to 58 urine specimens longitudinally collected from 12 subjects consuming three different levels of selenium. A dose-response relationship was observed in urine as well as a high correlations with both serum and whole blood selenium concentrations.

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Abstract  

Toenail samples were collected from 129 carpenters (average age 47). The bone and blood lead data for these carpenters have shown a broad range of lead-level exposure in this population. A total of 28 elements were measured in the sample set by a combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) methods. Of the elements measured, only Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Cd, Cu, F, and Ni were significantly correlated with lead. A statistical treatment of the overall data set, including principal component analysis, was further applied in an attempt to correlate the elements in the samples.

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Abstract  

A chemical and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (CNAA/RNAA) method has been developed for the determination of three calcium isotopes (48Ca,46Ca, and44Ca) in a single sample derived from urine. This method was developed in support of clinical research using a dual enriched stable isotope methodology to study bone mineralization in premature infants, juvenile rheumatoid arthritics, and cystic fibrosis. In these studies, one enriched isotope of calcium is administered orally, and one is administered intravenously. By making determinations of three isotopes (two enriched, one unenriched) within the same sample, the perturbation from natural isotopic ratios can be determined and used to calculate true absorption of calcium. In our method,48Ca is determined via the48Ca(n,γ)49Ca reaction and 3084 keV gamma-ray,46Ca via the46Ca(n,γ)47Ca reaction and 1296 keV gamma-ray, and44Ca via the44Ca(n,γ)45Ca reaction and 256 keV (max) beta-particle. A pair of chemical separation steps are employed to separate calcium from urine as calcium oxalate with a yield in the range of 80–90%, and a radiochemical step is employed prior to the measurement of45Ca to remove interfering radionuclides.

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Abstract  

Chronic dietary deficiency of selenium has been shown to be associated with degenerative heart disease in production animals in the U.S. and in the human in parts of China. In the latter, subjects in the endemic areas suffer high rates of a cardiomyopathy known as Keshan's Disease which is normally fatal in early adulthood and can be prevented, or reversed in its early stages, via selenium supplementation. Selenium, as the active moiety in the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, protects against oxidative attack of cell membranes by peroxides formed during normal metabolism. In this study, we investigated the distribution of selenium in healthy porcine and bovine heart tissue freshly collected at slaughter. The whole heart was perfused with DI water and carefully de-fatted. Representative samples of left and right atria and ventricles and the interventricular septum were collected, lyophilized and homogenized prior to preparing replicate samples for analysis. Replicates were analyzed for selenium via an INAA scheme employing a 5, 15 and 25 second irradiation (φth = 8·1013 n·cm−2·s−1), decay and real-time count (77mSe,T 1/2=17.4 s), respectively, using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with Westphal pulse pile-up correction. Selenium distribution will be discussed relative to differentiated function and oxygenation of the specific tissues.

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Abstract  

Iodine is an essential nutrient in the human diet. Its primary role is expressed as a component of thyroxine (T4) and the corresponding deiodinated triiodothyronine (T3) hormones produced by the thyroid as part of the system that regulates growth, mental development and metabolism. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iodine ranges from 50 μg/day for infants to 150 μg/day for adults. Reports over the last 15 years have indicated that the U.S. diet provides 2 to 7 times the iodine RDA and that dairy products typically provide 20 to 60 percent of the dietary iodine intake. Measurements of iodine in dietary components and composites reported in FDA studies have been done calorimetrically. These studies have, according to the authors, both under reports (by up to −50%) and over reports (by up to +80%) the iodine, depending on food type, compared to a radiochemical NAA reference method. Milk is typically under reported by −20%. The objective of this study was to utilize epiboron neutron activation analysis (EBNAA) to study the iodine concentrations, and seasonal variations of iodine, and market milk and infant formula, collected 15 years apart, in comparison with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) market-basket reports.

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Abstract  

The role of fluorine in human health has become somewhat controversial. It is widely accepted as protective against dental caries, may be protective against osteoporosis, and has been very conservatively implicated with osteosarcoma in male rats. In this study, we repot on the development of a neutron activation analysis method and its application to the analysis of human nails. We have found that toenails collected in population-based epidemiology studies apparently reflect fluoride intake.

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Abstract  

In this study we report on the comparison between the total selenium in serum (total Se) with that which is apparently bound to high molecular weight (>12,000 D) species, presumably proteins (bound Se). Nine hundred seventy seven (977) serum samples arising out of a population-based epidemiological study were prepared in duplicate for the determination of total Se by pipeting directly into irradiation vials; and separate duplicate aliquots were dialyzed against DI water for the determination of bound Se. All samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis via77mSe (17.4 s). A small dialyzable Se component (6%) (free Se), defined as the difference between the total Se minus the bound Se, was identified.

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Abstract  

An instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique, based on the19F(n,)20F reaction, has been development for the determination of fluoride in bone. The purpose was to study fluoride distribution in different kinds of bone samples using a rabbit model. The rationale for the study stems from the posible correlation between fluoride in bone and osteoporosis. The sodium concentration in the bone was used to correct the20F peak area for the23F(n,)20F contribution. Two secondary standards, teflon tape and teflon coated dacron line, were used to quantify fluoride concentration. They proved to be stable and consistent with respect to their fluoride concentration. Bone specimens from 10 sites and two tooth samples were analyzed for fluoride. Fluoride concentration ranged from 305 ppm in the tibia long bone to 585 ppm in the humerus trochanter end and the magnitude of fluoride concentration levels is age depdentent. The detection limit of the fluoride is approximately 5 ppm using a 100 mg bone sample.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: C. Baskett, J. Morris, V. Spate, M. Mason, T. Cheng, T. Nichols, H. Anderson, C. Tharp, T. Horsman, and R. Dowdy

Abstract  

The objective of this study was to determine if a stable enriched tracer of Se-76 could be used to establish the delay time between a dietary intake of selenium and its appearance in various matrices. Selenium, an essential trace element, has been investigated at the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) for several years. Several matrices have been studied to determine selenium status in humans; these include fingernails, toenails, blood, hair, and urine. A cohort of five women and seven men was utilized for this study. Each subject ingested selenium supplements which were enriched in Se-76 (96.48%). Fingernails, toenails, whole blood, and blood sera were collected as biochemical indicators. Selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined in blood sera and whole blood to monitor the effect of the selenium supplement in these matrices. Selenium concentrations were determined in fingernails and toenails prior to supplementation and for several months afterward to determine the delay time for the appearance of selenium. The effects of the selenium supplement on the selenium concentrations of the fingernails, toenails, whole blood, and blood sera and the effect of the supplement on glutathione peroxidase activity will be reported.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: C. Baskett, V. Spate, J. Morris, H. Anderson, M. Mason, C. Reams, T. Cheng, K. Zinn, G. Hill, and R. Dowdy

Abstract  

The principal objective of this study was to determine if the use of a stable enriched tracer of Se-76 could be used to determine the delay time between a dietary intake of selenium and its appearance in fingernails and toenails. Selenium is an essential trace element in human nutrition. It has been studied at the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) for the past 15 years using an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. The principal route of human exposure to selenium is through the diet. Selenium concentrations of nails, blood, hair, and urine have been used as indicators of dietary selenium intake. In this study, a cohort consisting of seven men and five women ingested three selenium supplements of 150 g each over a three day period. The selenium was enriched in Se-76 (96.48%) and ingested as selenite in orange juice following an overnight fast. Fingernails and toenails were collected prior to the selenium supplementation and for several months afterward to be used as biochemical indicators. The peak76Se concentration in the fingernails and toenails occurred at 19–23 and 16–32 weeks after supplementation, respectively.

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