Sixteen minor and trace element contents of diet samples collected from the Pratas islanders were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples were prepared by the duplicate portion technique, collecting during a 3-day period in winter. Dry weight elemental concentrations and daily dietary intake by islanders are compared with those taken by urban population living in Taiwan, resulting in higher intake of most elements. In addition, concentration of natural radionuclides and artificial fallout in daily diet were determined by means of -spectroscopy; the annual intake of radioactivity was evaluated and compared with those in population of neighboring Taiwan and South China. Features of the elemental concentration and radioactive concentration in the diet are discussed.
This paper deals with a rapid method to determine radionuclides in reactor coolant by anion, cation, and anion-cation exchange membranes. A high pressure filtration device was established to simulate the THOR cooling water sampling system by means of several membranes mentioned above. The experimental results indicate that the adsorption efficiency of each membrane for several radionuclides is /1/ >95% with cation exchange membrane for Zn, Co, Na, Mn, Cu, Cs, Ba, La, W etc., /2/ >98% with anion exchange membrane for I, and /3/ <98% with anion-cation exchange membranes for Fe and Cr. The results are obtained using cooling water of Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor and the following radionuclides were identified:99mTc,140Ba,140La,51Cr,131I,58Co,60Co,54Mn,46Sc,59Fe,24Na, etc.
The concentrations of hydrogen peroxide formed in the coolant due to radiolysis were studied during THOR operation at 1 MW. The relation between doses and hydrogen peroxide formation in a neutron-gamma mixed field was investigated. The initial concentration was 2.3×10–5 g/ml at the beginning of reactor operation, and then it was increased rather rapidly at the first 9 h. The increasing rate was slowed down till the end of 30 h operation. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide was found to be 4.7×10–5 g/ml, and its decrease followed the exponential curve.
The radionuclide concentration in environmental samples and radiation level on Pratas Island are measured prior to the commercial operation of Da-Ya Bay Nuclear Power Plant nearby. Except for some minute amount of60Co and157Cs, radiation background is mainly from naturally occurring radionuclides. Automatic radiation surveillance and a routine sampling program on Pratas Island are essential to provide early warning for Taiwan in case of nuclear emergency.
Authors:H. S. O. Chan, T. S. A. Hor, C. S. M. Chiam, and T. C. Chong
The thermal degradation of three monosubstituted hexacarbonyl complexes, M(CO)5(dppm) (whereM=Cr, Mo and W;dppm=Bis-(diphenylphosphino)-methane) has been studied using TG and DSC technics and their results reported. All the complexes facilely lose a carbonyl ligand (CO) below 200 °C. The kinetic analysis on the molybdenum complex suggested a first order dissociation pathway for this decarbonylation process. Dephosphination occurred at high temperature, followed by further decarbonylations. The enthalpy changes associated with the first decarbonylation are reported. The measured kinetic parameters are in good agreement with the literature values on similar systems obtained from solution studies.
Authors:H. S. O. Chan, S. C. Ng, S. H. Seow, W. S. Sim, and T. S. A. Hor
The thermal characteristics of polyaniline (PANI), poly(o-aminobenzoic acid) (POABAC) and poly(o-aminobenzyl alcohol) (POABOL) are determined and compared by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The higher thermal stability of POABOL is attributed to heat-induced condensation between the polymer chains. The DSC results suggest both intra- and inter-molecular interaction in the form of hydrogen bonding due to the substituent group in POABAC and POABOL. These interactions, however, occur mainly in the doped from and is greatly reduced when the dopant is expelled from the system at higher temperatures.
Authors:H. S. O. Chan, T. S. A. Hor, J. R. Lusty, K. H. Lim, and C. S. M. Chiam
The thermal degradation of three monosubstituted hexacarbonyl complexes, M(CO)5py (where M=Cr, Mo, and W; py=pyridine) has been studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and their results reported. It was found that for each of the three complexes studied, the starting material M(CO)6 was formed which immediately sublimed unchanged with or without concomitant loss of carbonyl (CO) ligands to give the first large weight loss step. This was closely followed by the volatilisation of the pyridine ligands and at higher temperatures the loss of further CO ligands. The enthalpy changes associated with the above-mentioned steps are reported. The conversion of M(CO)5py to M(CO)6 and other products was confirmed by the analysis of residue after pyrolysis in a tube furnace under conditions similar to those observed in TG experiments.
Authors:Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Sophia Achab, Joël Billieux, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Natacha Carragher, Zsolt Demetrovics, Susumu Higuchi, Daniel L. King, Karl Mann, Marc Potenza, John B. Saunders, Max Abbott, Atul Ambekar, Osman Tolga Aricak, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Norharlina Bahar, Guilherme Borges, Matthias Brand, Elda Mei-Lo Chan, Thomas Chung, Jeff Derevensky, Ahmad El Kashef, Michael Farrell, Naomi A. Fineberg, Claudia Gandin, Douglas A. Gentile, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna E. Goudriaan, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Wei Hao, David C. Hodgins, Patrick Ip, Orsolya Király, Hae Kook Lee, Daria Kuss, Jeroen S. Lemmens, Jiang Long, Olatz Lopez-Fernandez, Satoko Mihara, Nancy M. Petry, Halley M. Pontes, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Florian Rehbein, Jürgen Rehm, Emanuele Scafato, Manoi Sharma, Daniel Spritzer, Dan J. Stein, Philip Tam, Aviv Weinstein, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Klaus Wölfling, Daniele Zullino, and Vladimir Poznyak
The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it.