A two-compartment model was used to describe the irreversible sorption behavior of 137Cs on frayed edge sites (FES) of finite capacity in soils in Hong Kong reservoir. The sorption rate was assumed to depend
on factors like the fractional water activity concentration, the difference between the activity concentration of 137Cs in aqueous phase and that in particulate phase, and the number of available sorption sites. By varying the exponents of
the different factors, very good fitting was obtained between experimental data and theory. A relationship between the number
of available frayed edge sites and the mass of soil was proposed.
Authors:J. Chen, G. Hu, J. Zhang, C. Chu and Y. Wu
Drought is a severe abiotic stress that affects wheat production worldwide. In order to identify candidate genes for tolerance to water stress in wheat, sequences of 11 genes that have function of drought tolerance in other plant species were used to identify the wheat ortholog genes via homology searching in the wheat EST database. Atotal of 11 primer pairs were identified and amplified PCR products in wheat. Of them, 10 STS markers were mapped on 11 chromosomes in a set of nulli-tetrasomic lines of ‘Chinese Spring’ wheat; six were mapped on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 4B, 7A, 2B and 5D, respectively, in a spring wheat mapping population (POP1). The marker XTaABH1 mapped on 7A in POP1 was the only one mapped but characterized in a winter wheat mapping population (POP2) for grain yield, kernel weight and diameter, and height in four-field trials applied different water stress or irrigation. The marker XTaABH1 was significantly associated with grain yield under rainfed condition, with kernel weight under terminal stress and non-irrigation conditions, with kernel diameter and height under non-irrigated condition. The STS primers, map information and marker-trait association produced in the currently study would be of interest to researchers working on drought tolerance.
Authors:Q. Wang, J. Sun, G. Chu, X. Yao and C. Chen
The thermal behaviors of four organic solvents with/without LiPF6 were measured by C80 microcalorimeter at a 0.2�C min−1 heating rate. With the addition of 1 M LiPF6, the ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) show the exothermic peaks at elevated temperature, which lessen
their stabilities. The exothermic peak temperatures of EC and PC based LiPF6 solutions are at 212 and 223�C, respectively, in argon filled vessel. However, two endothermic peak temperatures were detected
in diethyl carbonate (DEC) based LiPF6 solution at 182 and 252.5�C, respectively, in argon filled vessel. Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) based LiPF6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 68.5 and 187�C in argon filled vessel at elevated temperature. Consequently,
it is concluded that LiPF6 play a key role in the thermal behavior of its organic solution.
Authors:Y. C. Chu, J. R. Chen, J. M. Tseng, L. C. Tsai and C. M. Shu
Di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) is an organic peroxide (OP) which has widespread use in the various chemical industries. In the past, thermal runaway reactions of OPs have been caused by their general thermal instability or by reactive incompatibility in storage or operation, which can create potential for thermal decomposition reaction. In this study, differential scanning calorimetry was applied to measure the heat of decomposition reactions, which can contribute to understand the reaction characteristics of DTBP. Vent sizing package 2 was also employed to evaluate rates of increase for temperature and pressure in decomposition reactions, and then the thermokinetic parameters of DTBP were estimated. Finally, hazard characteristics of the gassy system containing DTBP, specifically with respect to thermal criticality, were clearly identified.
Authors:D. Hoffman, R. Henderson, K. Gregorich, D. Bennett, R. Chasteler, C. Gannett, H. Hall, D. Lee, M. Nurmia, S. Cai, R. Agarwal, A. Charlop, Y. Chu, G. Seaborg and R. Silva
The isotope260Lr, produced in reactions of18O with249Bk, was used to perform chemical experiments on lawrencium to learn more about its chemical properties. These experiments involved extractions with thenoyl trifluoroacetate, elutions from cation exchange resin columns with ammonium alpha-hydroxyisobutyrate, and reverse-phase chromatography using hydrogen di(2-ethylhexyl) orthophosphoric acid to investigate the chemical properties of Lr. The results from the elutions gave information about the ionic radius of Lr(III) which was found to elute very close to Er. An attempt to reduce Lr(III) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride was unsuccessful.