In this study pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed to estimate the soil water retention curves (SWRCs) for Rye Island (Csallóköz, S. W. Slovakia). A representative set of soil water retention curves was measured using a laboratory method on samples taken from soils the study area. Particle size distribution and bulk density were determined as well. Multiple regression analysis was used for estimating nine statistical relationships in order to predict the drying part of the SWRCs. Texture and bulk density were used as predictors. Pedotransfer functions were verified on another set of measured water retention curves from the same territory as well as on SWRCs determined for soils of the Szigetköz region in Hungary. A good agreement was found between the calculated and measured SWRCs for the Slovakian soils, while somewhat poorer estimates could be given for Hungarian soils.
Authors:C. Farkas, A. Hagyó, E. Tóth, J. Szabó, and T. Németh
This study was carried out to evaluate the soil hydrophysical properties and soil water regime of two irrigated maize fields in order to support irrigation planning and management. The experimental sites were located in Mezohegyes (MZH) and Hódmezovásárhely (HMV) in SE Hungary. In total 11 monitoring stations were chosen, using information from a previously developed, GIS-based agro-geoinformation system. In 2003 and 2004 soil sampling and in situ measurements were performed to determine the soil hydrophysical properties and soil water content dynamics. The hydraulic conductivity of the topsoil was evaluated from double ring infiltrometer measurements. A previously calibrated TDR 300 instrument and a 3T-M capacitance probe were used for quantifying the soil water content. Both types of equipment were found to require calibration and testing under field conditions before use. It was concluded that the study fields could be considered relatively homogeneous in relation to both soil hydrophysical properties and soil water regime. Thus, monitoring stations established for one or two carefully selected soil profiles could provide enough data to ensure proper decisions on irrigation. The results indicate that the soil management system and irrigation strategy used in the experimental fields ensured satisfactory soil and soil moisture conditions.
Authors:D. Lőrinczy, F. Könczöl, L. Farkas, J. Belagyi, and C. Schick
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, ST-EPR) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) were used in conventional and temperature
modulated mode to study internal motions and energetics of myosin in skeletal muscle fibres in different states of the actomyosin
ATPase cycle. Psoas muscle fibres from rabbit were spin-labelled with an isothiocyanate-based probe molecule at the reactive
sulfhydryl site (Cys-707) of the catalytic domain of myosin. In the presence of nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP⋅PNP) and ATP or
ADP plus orthovanadate, the conventional EPR spectra showed changes in the ordering of the probe molecules in fibres. In MgADP
state a new distribution appeared; ATP plus orthovanadate increased the orientational disorder of myosin heads, a random population
of spin labels was superimposed on the ADP-like spectrum.
In the complex DSC pattern, higher transition referred to the head region of myosin. The enthalpy of the thermal unfolding
depended on the nucleotides, the conversion from a strongly attached state of myosin to actin to a weakly binding state was
accompanied with an increase of the transition temperature which was due to the change of the affinity of nucleotide binding
to myosin. This was more pronounced in TMDSC mode, indicating that the strong-binding state and rigor state differ energetically
from each other. The different transition temperatures indicated alterations in the internal microstructure of myosin head
region The monoton decreasing TMDSC heat capacities show that Cp of biological samples should not be temperature independent.
Authors:Judit Farkas, M. C. Horzinek, H. F. Egberink, H. Vennema, Mária Benkő, and B. Lakatos
Adenoviral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in pharyngeal and rectal swab samples of a cat seropositive for adenovirus and suffering from transient hepatic failure. The samples were taken at a one-year interval, and both faecal samples as well as the second pharyngeal sample were positive in PCR performed with general adenovirus primers. The size of the amplified products corresponded to that of the positive control. The identity of the amplicons was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The 301 bp long hexon gene fragment was very similar to but distinguishable from the corresponding hexon sequence of human adenovirus type 2. This result suggests the possibility of persistent carrier status and shedding of adenovirus in cats.
Authors:G. Gelybó, E. Tóth, C. Farkas, Á. Horel, I. Kása, and Z. Bakacsi
Climate change is expected to have a vigorous impact on soils and ecosystems due to elevated temperature and changes in precipitation (amount and frequency), thereby altering biogeochemical and hydrological cycles. Several phenomena associated with climate change and anthropogenic activity affect soils indirectly via ecosystem functioning (such as higher atmospheric CO2 concentration and N deposition). Continuous interactions between climate and soils determine the transformation and transport processes. Long-term gradual changes in abiotic environmental factors alter naturally occurring soil forming processes by modifying the soil water regime, mineral composition evolution, and the rate of organic matter formation and degradation. The resulting physical and chemical soil properties play a fundamental role in the productivity and environmental quality of cultivated land, so it is crucial to evaluate the potential outcomes of climate change and soil interactions. This paper attempts to review the underlying long-term processes influenced by different aspects of climate change. When considering major soil forming factors (climate, parent material, living organisms, topography), especially climate, we put special attention to soil physical properties (soil structure and texture, and consequential changes in soil hydrothermal regime), soil chemical properties (e.g. cation exchange capacity, soil organic matter content as influenced by changes in environmental conditions) and soil degradation as a result of longterm soil physicochemical transformations. The temperate region, specifically the Carpathian Basin as a heterogeneous territory consisting of different climatic and soil zones from continental to mountainous, is used as an example to present potential changes and to assess the effect of climate change on soils. The altered physicochemical and biological properties of soils require accentuated scientific attention, particularly with respect to significant feedback processes to climate and soil services such as food security.
Authors:R.T. Mócsai, A. Maczó, C. Grünwald-Gruber, K. Majer-Baranyi, N. Adányi, P. Milotay, J. Czelecz, and R. Tömösközi-Farkas
Investigation of putative allergens from tomato berries is challenging as differences between human serum IgE specificity and reactivity as well as the non-specific binding of the primary and secondary antibodies often cause difficulties. In this study five tomato cultivars were investigated to evaluate their potential allergenicity in Hungarian tomato sensitive patients. The major allergens proved to be low molecular weight proteins, but several previously described allergens could be identified as well using IgE-Western blotting. IgE binding to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) was ruled out through the use of CCD inhibitor, but non-specific binding of the secondary antibody remained an issue. IgE binding activity of a purified, immunoblot positive protein (band at 40 kDa), and non-specific binding of the secondary antibody to the same protein, was demonstrated with an Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS) based immunosensor. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed this protein is an as-yet undescribed vicilin-type putative allergen.
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda, C. Roux, D. K. Upreti, F. Schumm, G. K. Mishra, S. Nayaka, E. Farkas, J. S. Park, B. G. Lee, D. Liu, J.-J. Woo, and J.-S. Hur
Eighteen new to science species, i.e.: 13 taxa from South Korea (Astroplaca loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr., E. Farkas, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, Buellia ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Candelariella hakulinenii S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Flavoplaca laszloana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Lichenostigma epiporpidiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Mikhtomia geumohdoensis S. Y. Kondr., Liu D. et J.-S. Hur, Orientophila dodongensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Physcia orientostellaris S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Placynthiella hurii S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös, Protoparmeliopsis kopachevskae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Psoroglaena sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Rufoplaca kaernefeltiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Vezdaea poeltiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J. Halda et J.-S. Hur), two species from India (Rusavskia indica S. Y. Kondr. et D. K. Upreti, and R. upretii S. Y. Kondr., G. K. Mishra et S. Nayaka), and two species from Atlantic Europe, i.e.: Spain and Portugal (Xanthoria schummii S. Y. Kondr. and X. lapalmaensis F. Schumm et S. Y. Kondr.), as well as a lichenicolous fungus Leptosphaeria Oxneriae Cl. Roux et S. Y. Kondr. from Asia (Russia and India) are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Forty species of lichen forming and lichenicolous fungi (i.e.: Acarospora cf. rufescens, Agonimia allobata, A. aff. blumii, Anema decipiens, Anisomeridium aff. albisedum, Bacidia laurocerasi, Cercidospora aff. epipolytropa, C. aff. lobothallia, Dictyocatenulata alba, Fuscopannaria dissecta, Lecanora ussuriensis, Lecidella aff. carpatica, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Leptosphaeria crozalsii, Lichenostigma cf. bolacinae, L. aff. rupicolae, Lichinella stipatula, L. cribellifera, L. iodopulchra, L. aff. myriospora, Melaspilea proximella, Micarea alabastrites, Opegrapha aff. thelotrematis, Orientophila leucerythrella, Pectenia plumbea, Placynthium tantaleum, Porpidia flavicunda, Psorula rufonigra, Pyrenocarpon aff. thelostomum, Pyrenodesmia duplicata, Pyrenopsis aff. haematina, Ramboldia haematites, Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans, Rimularia gibbosa, Rinodina oxydata, Staurothele frustulenta, Stigmidium cf. clauzadei, Strigula australiensis, Thelenella luridella, Vezdaea leprosa) are for the first time recorded for Korea. Additional locality records for South Korea (74 species) and China (3 species) are also given.
Four new combinations, i.e.: Orientophila chejuensis (for Caloplaca chejuensis S. Y. Kondr. et Hur), Orientophila diffluens (for Lecanora diffluens Hue), Orientophila leucerythrella (for Lecanora leucerythrella Nyl.), and Pyrenodesmia duplicata (for Lecanora duplicata Vain.) are also proposed.