is one of the
species most commonly found in the wild field, which can cause severe infection and mortality in young sparrows. In this study, we selected
(Chung Hsing strain) as a pathogen to orally inoculate russet sparrows (
), spotted munia (
), canary (
), Java sparrows (
), chicken (
), ducks (
) and BALB/c mice. The results indicated that
infected only russet sparrows. Infected sparrows displayed lethargy, muscular weakness and fluffy feathers, followed by rapid death. Liver and spleen enlargement was seen in the infected birds. Schizonts were identified in thin smears from the venous blood, enlarged livers and spleens. Histopathological examination revealed schizonts and merozoites from the liver and spleen of infected russet sparrows, but not from other species experimentally inoculated with
in the present study.
The aim of this study was the preparation and histological evaluation of Leukocyte- and Thrombocyte-Rich Fibrin (L-TRF) membranes obtained from the blood of four bird species. Forty adult healthy birds were divided into four groups of equal size: G1 – macaws, G2 – domestic chickens, G3 – parrots, G4 – toco toucans. A total of 0.5 mL of blood was collected from each bird, put into a glass tube without anticoagulant and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. L-TRF membranes produced after compression of the clot were processed for histological analysis. The ratio of thrombocytes/area was not significantly different among Groups G2, G3 and G4, but a significant difference was found between Groups G1 and G2 with the highest thrombocyte concentration/area in G1. The groups did not differ statistically in the number of leukocytes/area. The fibrin-to-cells ratio did not vary statistically among Groups G1, G2 and G3, but this ratio was significantly higher in Group G4 than in the other groups. The thrombocyte-to-leukocyte ratio was the highest in Group G1, but it did not differ among Groups G2, G3 and G4. In conclusion, the centrifugation protocol allowed the production of L-TRF membranes in the four bird species studied. Histologically, cell ratios were analogous in domestic chickens and parrots, and macaws had the highest ratio of thrombocytes.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) imposes a potential public health threat worldwide. Gaming motives are potentially salient factors of IGD, but research on Chinese gaming motives is scarce. This study empirically evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (C-MOGQ), the first inventory that measures seven different gaming motives applicable to all type of online games. We also investigated the associations between various gaming motives and IGD symptoms among Chinese gamers.
Three hundred and eighty-three Chinese adult online gamers (Mean age = 23.7 years) voluntarily completed our online, anonymous survey in December 2015.
The confirmatory factor analysis results supported a bi-factor model with a general factor subsuming all C-MOGQ items (General Motivation) and seven uncorrelated domain-specific factors (Escape, Coping, Fantasy, Skill Development, Recreation, Competition, and Social). High internal consistencies of the overall scale and subscales were observed. The criterion-related validity of this Chinese version was also supported by the positive correlations of C-MOGQ scale scores with psychological need satisfaction and time spent gaming. Furthermore, we found that high General Motivation (coupled with high Escape motive and low Skill Development motive) was associated with more IGD symptoms reported by our Chinese participants.
Discussion and conclusions
Our findings demonstrated the utility of C-MOGQ in measuring gaming motives of Chinese online gamers, and we recommend the consideration of both its total score and subscale scores in future studies.