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  • Author or Editor: C. Mónaco x
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Fungal isolations were made from leaves of tomato plants cultivated in greenhouses in an area close to La Plata, Argentina. Three different schemes of fungicide application were evaluated: high frequency preventive sprayings (Commercial Greenhouse I), low frequency preventive applications (Commercial Greenhouse II) and no fungicide spraying (Control Greenhouse). Leaves were sampled immediately after second fruit formation from three levels of the foliage: low, medium and high. Plating dilution was used to isolate fungal species. Total c.f.u. number and species composition and diversity were assessed by the plating dilution technique. Fungal populations were most abundant on leaves from lower parts of the foliage in the Control Greenhouse. Diversity varied according to fungicide application frequency and leaf position in the canopy. Higher values were recorded for lower leaves in the Control Greenhouse compared with upper leaves from Commercial Greenhouse II. Likewise position in the canopy influenced the frequency of some species. The implications for natural biological control are discussed. Key words: biodiversity, biological control, phylloplane, tomato

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Trichoderma harzianum is a potential biocontrol agent against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean. Information is needed on the compatibility of this biocontrol agent and the post-emergent herbicides used in soybean cropping.Haloxyfop R Methyl (EC 10.4%), Glyphosate (SL 48%), Imazamox (WG 70%) and Imazethapyr (SL 10%) were evaluated for their effects on the mycelial growth of T. harzianum on in vitro agar plates. Glyphosate (2000 ppm), Imazethapyr (500 and 250 ppm) and Haloxyfop R Methyl (1000, 500 and 100 ppm) reduced the mycelial growth of T. harzianum . Imazamox had no effect at any concentration.Subsequently, all the herbicides were assessed for their effect on soil populations of T. harzianum . Greenhouse assays conducted with non-sterile soil inoculated with T. harzianum and a specific herbicide were sampled before pesticide application and after 30 days. The number of colony forming units per gram of soil (c.f.u./g of soil) was evaluated with a soil dilution technique using Trichoderma selective medium (TSM). No detrimental effect was revealed.

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