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Abstract  

Recoil reactions of128I in liquid methyl iodide, ethyl iodide and n-butyl iodide target systems in the presence of benzene diluent have been studied by the charged plate technique. The investigations have been carried out over a wide range of diluent concentration. It has been observed that there are more collected recoil charged128I species on the anode than on the cathode. The presence of benzene diluent in the target systems prior to neutron irradiation reduces the recoil collection on both electrodes.

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The dithiocarbamato complexes of titanyl(IV), zirconyl(IV) and hafnyl(IV), abbreviated as MO(S2CNRR)2·nH2O(M=Ti, Zr or Hf,R=H,R′=C5H9;R=H,R′=C7H11,n=1 for Ti andn=2 for Zr and Hf), were prepared in aqueous medium and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectral studies. The thermal behaviour of these compounds under non-isothermal conditions was investigated by thermogravimetric, derivative thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimctric techniques in nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres. The intermediates obtained at the end of various thermal decomposition steps were identified on the basis of analyses and IR spectral studies. Kinetic parameters, such as apparent activation energy and order of reaction, were determined by the graphical method of Coats and Redfern. The heats of reaction for the different decomposition steps were calculated from the DSC curves.

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Grain yield and quality under terminal heat stress (post anthesis) are the most complex traits that are influenced by environmental factors and are characterized by low heritability and large genotype × environment interactions. The present study was undertaken to determine effectiveness of selection for genotypes tolerant to heat stress using differences in 1000-grain weight (dTGW) under the optimum and late sown field condition. A Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) mapping population derived from the heat sensitive genotype Raj 4014 and heat tolerant genotype WH730 was evaluated for the heat stress over 2 years in a replicated trial under optimum and late sown field conditions. The parental lines were screened with approximately 300 SSR (μsatellite) markers out of which about 20% showed polymorphism. These polymorphic markers were utilized for genotyping a subset that had clear contrasting variation for dTGW. The difference in TGW between the timely and late sown conditions was used as a phenotypic trait for association with markers. Analysis of the two years data under timely and late sown condition revealed parents and their RILs clearly showing variation with respect to the dTGW. Regression analysis revealed significant association of dTGW of RILs with two markers viz., Xpsp3094, and Xgwm282 with coefficients of determination (R2) values of 0.14 and 0.11, respectively.

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A two-year field experiment was conducted to study the effect of three zinc levels 0, 20 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 and 20 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 + foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 solution on plant height, leaf area, shoot biomass, photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content in different wheat genotypes. Increasing zinc levels was found to be beneficial in improving growth and physiological aspects of genotypes. Soil application + foliar spray proved to be the best application in improving all the parameters. Zinc application brought about a maximum increment limit of 41.8% in plant height, 101.8% in leaf area, 86% in shoot biomass and 51.1% in photosynthetic rate irrespective of stages and year of study. A variation was found to occur among genotypes in showing responses towards zinc application and PBW 550 was found to be more responsive.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
N. Jain
,
G.P. Singh
,
R. Yadav
,
R. Pandey
,
P. Ramya
,
M.B. Shine
,
V.C. Pandey
,
N. Rai
,
J. Jha
, and
K.V. Prabhu

Under limiting water resources, root system response of genotypes to soil-water conditions with enhanced shoot biomass holds the key for development of improved genotypes. Based on the hypothesis of root biomass contribution to higher yields under limiting conditions which might be attributed to the root system plasticity of genotypes, a set of thirty-four genotypes were evaluated under three moisture regimes in a pot experiment for root system traits. Total root dry matter had a positive association with total shoot dry matter (0.35). The identified genotypes showed greater yields and higher stress tolerance index (STI) in an independent field experiment. Root dry matter positively correlated with stress tolerance index on grain yields in both the years. The total variation was partitioned into principal components and GGE biplots were studied to identify the best performing genotypes under the three environments for root dry biomass and related traits. HD2932 appeared to be the winner genotype under different regimes. These results might be helpful in identifying donors for moisture stress tolerance that can be utilized in wheat breeding programmes for accelerated development of varieties with improved root systems.

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Abstract

This communication presents the experimental study and performance analysis of a solar air heater with and without phase change material (PCM) viz. paraffin wax and hytherm oil. There are three different arrangements viz. without PCM, with PCM and with hytherm oil to study the comparative performance of this experimental system. Inlet, outlet temperatures and radiation with respect to time have been recorded and found that the output temperature in case with thermal energy storage (TES) is higher than that of without TES, besides, the outlet temperature with paraffin wax is slightly greater than that of with hytherm oil. Also there is no energy gain in the evening in case of without TES but in case of with TES there is a heat gain for around 4 h in the evening which gives the backup for hot air for around four more hours which is the main advantage of this systems with TES. Based on the data, the efficiency of the system has been calculated and it is noted that the efficiency in the case of heat storage is higher than that of without TES, besides the efficiency in the case of the paraffin wax is slightly higher than that of the hytherm oil case.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
Satyabrata Mishra
,
Falix Lawrence
,
R. Sreenivasan
,
N. Pandey
,
C. Mallika
,
S. Koganti
, and
U. Kamachi Mudali

Abstract  

Removal of nitric acid from high level liquid wastes (HLLW) of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is warranted for simplifying the procedure for waste fixing. Chemical denitration aims to reduce the waste volume by destroying the acidity and subsequent concentration by adding suitable reductants. Reduction of nitric acid to gaseous products is an attractive way to accomplish denitration. Nitric acid reduction with formaldehyde proceeds with the formation of CO2, NO2, NO or N2O depending on the reaction conditions and all the reaction products except water can be eliminated from the system in gaseous form. The HNO3–HCHO reaction is governed by a complex mechanism of exhibiting relatively long induction period, depending upon the temperature, concentration of reactants and nitrous acid reaction intermediate. In the present work, a homogeneous denitration process with formaldehyde which offers safety and is governed by controlled kinetics was demonstrated on a laboratory scale. The induction period before commencement of the reaction was eliminated by maintaining the reaction mixture at a pre determined temperature of 98 °C. Based on the results accrued from lab scale experiments, the equipment for pilot plant scale operation was designed, the reaction efficiency for continuous denitration was determined and the investigation of nitric acid destruction was extended to full-scale plant capacity. The role of organics in the waste in foaming up of the reaction mixture was also studied using a synthetic waste solution.

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Pasteurella multocida B:2 is responsible for haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes, causing severe economic losses in the developing countries. In the present study, the ahpA gene of P. multocida B:2 (P52) was cloned, sequenced and compared with the previously reported ahpA gene sequence in P. multocida A:1, which is responsible for its haemolytic phenotype. E. coli DH5α cells were further transformed with recombinant plasmid carrying the ahpA gene from P. multocida B:2 (P52) but SDS-PAGE analysis failed to show the expression of haemolysin protein. Slight haemolysis was albeit observed in horse blood agar plates streaked with recombinant E. coli carrying the ahpA gene. Our study indicates that there is 99.6% similarity and 0.4% divergence between ahpA gene of P. multocida B:2 (P52) and P. multocida A:1, while membrane topology analysis has predicted that ahpA is an inner membrane protein with two strong hydrophobic regions at the N and C terminals. The presence of significant homology in ahpA sequence in A:1 and B:2 perhaps suggests a common mechanism of pathogenesis in different species of animals.

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Abstract

Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite have been synthesized by citrate precursor method. TG-DSC studies have been made to get the idea of the optimum temperature of annealing that could lead to the formation of nanoparticles. Annealing the citrate precursor was done at 450, 650, and 973 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used for characterization. The data from vibrating sample magnetometer and photoluminescence spectrometer (PL) have been analyzed for exploring their applications. Using the Scherrer formula, the crystallite size was found to be 25, 32, and 43 nm, respectively, using the three temperatures. The particle size increased with annealing temperature. Rietveld refinements on the X-ray (XRD) data were done on the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (monoclinic cells) obtained on annealing at 650 °C, selecting the space group P2/M. The values of coercivity (1574.4 G) and retentivity (18.705 emu g−1) were found out in the sample annealed at 650 °C while magnetization (39.032 emu g−1) was also found in the sample annealed at 973 °C. The photoluminescence (PL) property of these samples were studied using 225, 330, and 350 nm excitation wavelength radiation source. The PL intensity was found to be increasing with the particle size.

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