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  • Author or Editor: C. Roselli x
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Abstract  

In various samples of marine organisms from the central Adriatic Sea 210Po was determined by alpha spectrometry and thirteen heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Sn, Hg and Pb) by energy dispersive, polarised X ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDPXRF). 210Po activity concentration ranged between 0.3 and 44.6 Bq kg−1 fresh weight. The data obtained depend upon the type of the marine organism; among the pelagic species, anchovy displayed the highest polonium concentration. Typical concentration
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ranges were as follows: Mn: <1.32–1.73; Fe: 4.11–94.27; Co < 0.13–0.23; Ni: <0.13–0.52; Cu: 0.37–145.31; Zn: 0.46–16.46; Cd: <0.10–0.25; As: 0.36–60.52; Hg: <0.13–0.70; Pb: <0.13–0.35, Sn: <0.20–12.67; V and Cr were always <1.32. The data obtained are also compared with those obtained by other authors for the same organism coming from other Italian seas.
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Abstract  

The knowledge of radioactive and stable elements partitioning to natural sediment systems is essential for modelling their environmental fate. A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions has been developed for determining the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th, 40K) and antropogenic (Pu, 241Am, 137Cs) radionuclides in a 10 cm deep sediment sample collected in the Tyrrhenian sea (Gaeta Gulf, Italy) in front of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant. 137Cs and 40K were measured by gamma-spectrometry. Extraction chromatography with Microthene-TOPO (U, Th), Microthene-TNOA (Pu) and Microthene-HDEHP (Am) was used for the chemical separation of the alpha-emitters: after electrodeposition alpha-spectrometry was carried out. Some stable elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Pb, Ba, Ti, Sr, Cu, Ni) were also determined in the different fractions to get more information about the chemical association of the radionuclides.

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Abstract  

Suitable separation techniques were prepared for actinide,90Sr and226Ra determinations in environmental and industrial samples. Extraction chromatography with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) solutions was used. IN some cases, a powder of Microthene (Microporous polyethylene) supporting solid TOPO was prepared thus obtaining a material showing better storing and column preparation features.Uranium and226Ra were determined in phosphorites, phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum.Uranium, thorium and226Ra were also measured in the low specific activity scales of hydrocarbon production equipment:226Ra was found to concentrate in some parts of the plant so causing a radiation protection problem.Plutonium and90Sr were measured either in some Mediterranean Sea samples or in environmental samples collected in Antarctica. Some interesting sea sediment profiles were also obtained.All the chemical methods were verified by: a) adding some yield tracers (232U,228Th,242Pu); b) analyzing some certified samples supplied by IAEA and NIST; c) participating in some international intercomparison runs; d) using, when possible, both an analytical and a radiometric method and e) following the radioactivity decay or growth (90Y and226Ra).

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Abstract  

Research was carried out to evaluate the possible correlation between the uranium content in host rocks and the Rn and daughters concentration in air for two Italian ZnS-PbS mines. As a great variability had been ascertained for222Rn and daughters concentration in the different areas, it appeared of some interest to verify whether this fact was due to a different uranium concentration in the host dolomitic rocks or simply to a ventilation problem. Some rock samples were collected in several places where also radon and daughters were drawn; uranium was determined by fluorimetry and by alpha spectrometry after a chemical separation with a Microthene-TOPO column.222Rn was measured by the scintillation cell method, while the decay products were determined by the Markov and Tsivoglou methods. No correlation could be found between uranium content and radon concentration, but a good linearity was detected between the uranium content and the concentration of Rn decay products (alpha potential energy).

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Abstract  

A sensitive and reliable metbod for the sequential separation and determination of plutonium,241Am and90Sr in soil samples was developed. Plutonium was separated by a Microthene-TNOA column. Then90Y (for90Sr determination) was separated from americium by a HDEHP column after elimination of large amounts of interfering stable or radioactive nuclides (iron,210Bi and210Po etc.) by an oxalate precipitation and a Microthene-TNOA column. Finally americium was purified by another HDEHP column and a PMBP-TOPO extraction. A special attention was paid to the decontamination of Pu and Am from210Po and of90Y from210Bi; the relevant decontamination factors resulted greater than 105, 106 and 104 respectively. The detection limits were 1.2 mBq/kg for Pu and 1.7 mBq/kg for241Am and 0.32 Bq/kg for90Sr. The procedure was checked by analyzing three certified samples supplied by IAEA. Some Italian soil samples were also analyzed giving average yields of 84.9±7.2% for Pu, 57.8±3.2%for Am and 96.7±1.6% for Y; the239+240Pu,238Pu,241Am and90Sr contents (Bq/kg) ranged from 0.347 to 1.53, from 0.013 to 0.048, from 0.126 to 0.556 and from 2.89 to 11.6 respectively and the average ratios were 0.037±0.017 for238Pu/239+240Pu, 0.357±0.040 for241Am/239+240Pu and 7.0±1.2 for90Sr/239+240Pu.

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Abstract  

A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions was used to determine the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th,) and antropogenic (Pu, Am, 137Cs) radionuclides in three sediment samples of different origin (Venice Lagoon, Adriatic Sea; Gaeta Gulf, Thyrrhenian Sea; IAEA-367, Enewetak Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean). Fe, Mn, Al, Ti, Ca, Sr, Pb, Ba, K were also determined in the different fractions to get more information about the chemical association of the single radionuclides. The experimental results were compared to those described in the literature for an IAEA-135 Sea Sediment collected in the Irish Sea in front of the Sellafield Plant (UK).

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Summary  

It is well known that the interest in radon concentration indoor as a pollutant emerged during the energy crisis of seventies which led to reduce ventilation in dwellings. Recently the Euratom Recommendation 2001/928 suggested the necessity of performing frequent 222Rn checks on tap waters. As a consequence of this Recommendation, Urbino and Perugia Universities carried out a preliminary 222Rn determination on tap waters of the Pesaro-Urbino province. Samplings were carried out in twenty-eight sites and radon concentration was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma-spectrometry. The results obtained by the two techniques were comparable (the deviation from the mean is lower than 10% for 54.5% of the samples). The resulted 222Rn concentration was very low (5 Bq . l-1 for 43% of the samples) and, therefore, radon in waters cannot be considered as a direct radiological risk for the local population.

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Summary  

Naturally occuring radioactive materials (NORM) are present in the environment and can be concentrated by technical activities, particularly those involving natural resources. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under environmental conditions at the earth's surface. However, reducing or oxidant conditions or pH changes may enable a fraction of naturally occurring radionuclides to eventually be released to the environment. In this paper the leachability of210Pb and210Po was determined in three samples coming from a refractories production plant (dust, sludge, finished product), in one dust sample from a steelwork and in one ash sample coming from an electric power station. A sequential extraction method consisting of five operationally-defined fractions was used. The average leaching potential observed in the samples from the refractory industry is very low (mean values: 5.8% for210Pb and 1.7% for210Po). The210Pb and210Po leachability increases for the ash sample coming from an electric power plant using carbon (17.8% for210Pb and 10.0% for210Po); for the dust sample coming from a steelwork, the percent soluble fraction is 41.1% for210Pb and 8.5% for210Po. For all samples the results obtained show that210Pb is slightly more soluble than210Po.

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Abstract  

In this paper the results of a four-year monitoring campaign carried out in a semi-rural site near Urbino, Central Italy, for ozone and for radon gas are reported and discussed. Radon can be considered as an index of vertical diffusion in the boundary layer. Its trend evidences the presence of temperature inversion such as the formation of the nocturnal stable layer and gives information on the vertical turbulence and the motion of air masses. Therefore, a simple measurement of radon concentration at ground resulted to describe the temporal evolution of the pollutants in the atmosphere. A comparison between the daily concentrations trend of ozone with that of radon gas was performed. The evolution of the convective boundary layer during daytime and the stable nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) were found to have marked impacts on ozone concentrations.

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