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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. P. Bettinetti, C. Caramella, F. Giordano, A. La Manna, C. Margheritis, and C. Sinistri

Thermal analysis of the binary system benzoic acid (BA) and trimethoprim (TMP) provided evidence of the formation of two molecular compounds. BA-TMP and two crystalline forms of (BA)2-TMP were characterized on the basis of their thermodynamic parameters as well as of crystallographic and spectroscopic properties. The availability of these compounds (by recrystallization) allowed interpretation of thermal effects in the DSC curves of the mixtures and the theoretical phase diagrams could be drawn. The results are consistent with the model of a very slight dissociation of the molecular compounds in the melt.

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We apply a range of techniques (thermal methods, microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy) to characterize a drug (atenolol), several excipients (PVP=polyvinylpyrrolidone, MGST=magnesium stearate, Avicel©) and drug-excipients mixtures either as prepared, annealed, and exposed to moisture. We compare the data of the mixtures with those computed from a weighted average of similarly treated pure compounds to find evidence of drug properties modified by the interaction with the excipient. We find that thermal response is by far the most sensitive indicator of interaction while IR is the least sensitive one. Avicel© has essentially no interaction with atenolol, while MGST modifies significantly only the thermal response of the drug in the MGST-rich mixtures. PVP interacts strongly with atenolol, and this interaction appears to be mediated by the substantial amount of hydration water the excipient brings in its mixtures with a water-free drug.

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