Taiwan monazite is a unique mineral obtained from the heavy sand found in the river floor of Tzuo-suei river and En-suei river. Both rivers are flowing parallel with separated narrow area into the sea at southwestern coast of Taiwan. The characteristic of monazite is that it contains considerable rare earth elements (REEs). REEs are considered very useful elements in the local industries and scientific researches such as ceramic, semiconductors, and glass optics. In this study, chemical neutron activation analysis (CNAA) was used to determine the contents of REEs in Taiwan monazite. A few milligram of monazite was digested in the microwave oven for 25 minutes with mixed acid (conc. HNO3 and HClO4). REEs were preconcentrated by hydrated magnesium oxide and CNAA was performed.
To investigate the pathogens that racing pigeons in Taiwan are exposed to, a total of 3764 pigeons from 90 lofts were analysed by collection of blood samples in the period between October 2000 and September 2001. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed to detect antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), type 2 avian paramyxovirus (APMV-2), and egg drop syndrome '76 virus (EDS-76V). The agar-gel precipitin (AGP) test was used to detect antibodies against fowl adenovirus (FAV), goose parvovirus (GPV), and avian reovirus (REO). The virus neutralisation (VN) test was applied to detect antibodies against the serotypes FAV-1 and FAV-8. A rapid serum agglutination test was applied for the detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma spp. Antibodies to several infectious agents were found, including NDV (43.3%), EDS-76V (19.2%), FAV (0.8%), REO (0.5%), APMV-2 (0.2%), Mycoplasma columbinum (10.3%), M. columborale (7.1%), M. synoviae (1.8%) and M. gallisepticum (1.3%). Antibodies against GPV, FAV-1, and FAV-8 were not detected in any serum sample. NDV seroprevalence was significantly higher in pigeons of more than one year of age than in pigeons younger than one year. ND or EDS-76 seroprevalence of pigeons vaccinated with ND vaccine or EDS-76 vaccine was significantly higher than that of pigeons that did not receive any vaccination.
A preconcentration method of 13 rare earth elements (REES) was studied for neutron activation ananlysis (NAA). Hydrated magnesium oxide was used as the preconcentration agent to absorb the REES ions from aqueous solution onto the solid magnesium oxide, which was separated and analyzed. It was observed that the Langmuir equation for isothermal adsorption was well obeyed by the REES under the condition studied. The efficiency of the preconcentration process using hydrated magnesium oxide was critically examined for each of REE and for mixture of REES by preparing a known volume of solution containing known amount of trace REES. NAA was used to analyze REES recovered by the preconcentration process. It was found that the REES recoveries were satisfactory and the preconcentration process is reliable. There are several resort resort areas in Taiwan where local people are enjoying its hot spring water. It is generally believed that the hot spring water spa would bring about some sorts of therapeutic functions. The preconcentration method developed above, was applied to analyze the trace amounts of REES in hot spring wate in Taiwan.
Authors:S. Yeh, C. Lin, C. Tsai, H. Yang, and C. Ke
An attempt was made to establish a reliable method using chemical neutron activation analysis for surveillance of pollutants in waste waters released by plants manufacturing various kinds of products. Since preconcentration process played important role in the entire course of the analysis work, special precaution was taken to re-confirm that the recovery efficiencies for pollutant ions were satisfactory during the preconcentration. It was also re-examined that the Langmuir's adsorption isotherm pattern well obeyed by all ions under investigation. In recent years, significant amounts of rare earth compounds and other raw materials containing representative elements have been imported and consumed to meet the demand due to the rapid progress in new manufacturing technology. Samples were collected from ten various production lines in plants and potential pollutants were determined using the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor. It would be noteworthy that the specimens obtained by this preconcentration process also would be usable for Induced Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry analysis for supplementary and/or comparison purposes.
Authors:S. Changlai, H. Tsai, S. Tsai, H. Chen, C. Chang, Y. Yao, and C. Chen
This work is the first evaluation of environmental gamma exposure rates by the Nuclear Medicine Department at Lin Shin Hospital
(LSH) in Taichung with Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-100H) during the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. After
the 9.0 MW strong earthquake hit northern Japan on March 11, 2011, a TLD-100H was used to monitor environmental kerma rate at Taichung
(2,500 km away from northern Japan) from Mar-08 to Apr-09, 2011 and evaluated kerma rate due to global fallout of the sever
FNPP accidents. Exposure rates varied widely among positions close to the PET/CT facility. Observed kerma rates of up to 4.12 ± 0.62 mSv mo−1 indicated an explicit, heavy leakage of photon through the PET/CT facility. No significant contributions were detected at
Taichung, Taiwan. Hence, the health effect cause by the “extra radiation” from FNPP accidents is negligible. As this was a
rare case of environmental monitoring during a nuclear power plant accident, its findings are of considerable significance.
An internal standard method has been applied for the determination of lanthanum, antimony, scandium, chromium, iron and cobalt
in commercial cigarettes by neutron activation analysis using gold as an internal standard element. These trace elements were
separated from irradiated samples by APDC (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate)/Zeph (tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium
chloride) coprecipitation, followed by direct gamma-counting of the separated precipitate using a Ge(Li) detector. Standard
reference tobacco 1R1 prepared by the University of Kentucky was also analyzed by this procedure for the above 6 elements,
the results of which were compared with literature values. Good results were obtained by the present method.
The thermochemical decomposition of agricultural by-product corn cob impregnated with ZnCl2, as a precursor material for producing the activated carbons, was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis at the
heating rate of 5 and 10°C min–1 under a controlled atmosphere of nitrogen (60 ml min–1). The appearance of a peak in the differential thermogravimetric plot (DTG) in the temperature range of 400–600°C is significantly
related to the extent of impregnation. The DTG curve of the sample impregnated with the optimal impregnation ratio of 175%
(i.e., the ratio of ZnCl2 mass of 87.5 g in the 200 cm3 of water to corn cobmass of 50 g), which yields an optimal BET surface area of the activated carbon and displays a DTG peak
at about 500°C. This may be partially due to the intense chemical activation and results in the formation of a porous structure
in the activated solid residue. This observation is also in close agreement with previous results at optimal pyrolysis temperatures
of 500°C and with similar experimental conditions. In order to support the results in the TG-DTG analysis, the development
of pore structure of the resulting activated carbons thus obtained by previous studies was also examined and explained using
the scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Authors:Y. C. Chu, J. R. Chen, J. M. Tseng, L. C. Tsai, and C. M. Shu
Di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) is an organic peroxide (OP) which has widespread use in the various chemical industries. In the past, thermal runaway reactions of OPs have been caused by their general thermal instability or by reactive incompatibility in storage or operation, which can create potential for thermal decomposition reaction. In this study, differential scanning calorimetry was applied to measure the heat of decomposition reactions, which can contribute to understand the reaction characteristics of DTBP. Vent sizing package 2 was also employed to evaluate rates of increase for temperature and pressure in decomposition reactions, and then the thermokinetic parameters of DTBP were estimated. Finally, hazard characteristics of the gassy system containing DTBP, specifically with respect to thermal criticality, were clearly identified.
Authors:Chuan-Pin Lee, Y. Wei, S. Tsai, S. Teng, and C. Hsu
In this study, the diffusion behavior of cesium and selenium with 10−4M concentration in mudrock was studied by trough-diffusion tests and summarized in order to provide confidence on long-term
performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories. The diffusion process of Cs and Se reached equilibrium after 60 and
500 days, respectively. Besides, it also displays that the distribution coefficients (Kd) of Se in through-diffusion tests is higher than that of Cs in agreement with that obtained from the batch method. The Kd value (15.14±1.99 mL/g) of Cs by diffusion techniques is equivalent to that of batch method (15.10±0.40 mL/g) because sorption
of Cs was assumed to fast sorption step. However, the Kd value of Se (137.58±12.20 mL/g) derived from the diffusion technique is higher than that from batch tests (76.72±2.96) and
showed an obvious variation with Kd of Cs. The difference of Kd between diffusion and batch methods resulted from the fact that 14 days were not long enough to reach equilibrium or stable
state in the batch method.
Authors:L. S. Santos, R. R. Catharino, C. L. Aguiar, S. M. Tsai, and M. N. Eberlin
The crude methanolic extracts of a single bean from samples of organic, natural or genetically modified (GM) soybeans [Glycine max. (Merrill) L.] were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). These extracts, containing
the most polar natural products of soybeans (free aglycones, monoglucosides, diglucosides and esters including isoflavones
and flavones) provide characteristic fingerprinting mass spectra owing to different proportions or sets of components. Spectra
distinctiveness is confirmed by chemometric multivariate analysis of the ESI-MS data, which place the three-types of beans
into well-defined groups. When ESI-MS is applied, these polar components constitute therefore unique chemotaxonomic markers
able to provide fast soybean typification.