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  • Author or Editor: C. Wang x
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Abstract  

The recent progress of positron studies on polymers are briefly reviewed. The correlation between free-volume holes and mechanical properties are discussed. The results indicate that the positron spectroscopy is a potential tool to characterize the microstructure and mechanical properties of polymeric materials.

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Abstract  

A method for the determination of protein in human limbs by in vivo neutron activation analysis of their nitrogen content is described. The neutron flux is provided by a collimated 740 GBq (20 Ci) Pu–Be source. The 10.83 MeV thermal neutron capture gamma-rays from14N are detected by a 12.7 cm by 10.2 cm NaI(T1) detector. The nitrogen and hydrogen in an arm, the lower and the upper legs of two volunteers were measured with a statistical error around 3.6%–18% and 0.26%–0.56%, respectively. Also, the ratio of nitrogen to hydrogen in the limbs was compared. For a 1.000 s irradiation the dose equivalent was 0.3 mSv (30 mrem).

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Abstract  

We prove that the Eisenstein series E(z, s) have no real zeroes for s ∈ (0, 1) when the value of the imaginary part of z is in the range
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< Im z < 4.94. For very large and very small values of the imaginary part of z, E(z, s) have real zeros in (½, 1), i.e. GRH does not hold for the Eisenstein series. Using these properties, we prove that the Rankin-Selberg L-function attached with the Ramanujan τ-function has no real zeros in the critical strip, except at the central point s = ½.
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Abstract

Let denote the set {n∣2|n, ∀ p>2 with p−1|k}. We prove that when , almost all integers can be represented as the sum of a prime and a k-th power of prime for k≧3. Moreover, when , almost all integers n∊(X,X+H] can be represented as the sum of a prime and a k-th power of integer for k≧3.

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Abstract  

A new thermokinetic reduced extent method for the product inhibition of single substrate enzyme-catalyzed reactions is proposed and compared with the traditional initial rate method in this paper. The arginase-catalyzed hydrolysis of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea was studied at 37C in 40 mM sodium barbiturate-HCl buffer solution (pH=9.4). Michaelis constant (K m) for arginine and maximum velocity (V m) of the reaction were determined by initial method and thermokinetic method. The activation of exogenous manganese to this reaction was also studied. The product inhibition constant (K P), which cannot be obtained directly from the initial rate method, was determined by thermokinetic without adding L-ornithine to the reaction system. When the concentration of Mn2+ in cell is 0.1 mM, the enzyme gets its full activity. Incubation arginase with appropriate concentration of Mn2+resulted in increased Vmax and a higher sensitivity of the enzyme to product with no change in the K m for arginine. We suggest that the exogenous manganese ions in solution have just recovered the activity of arginase, which was lost in dissolving and dilution, but no effect on the mechanism of the reaction.

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Abstract  

Wood, one of the most flammable materials, was treated with various compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, halogens, and boron. For a study of flame retardance from the standpoint of thermal degradation, the samples were subjected to thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) in nitrogen to determine if there were any characteristic correlations between thermal degradation behaviors and the level of flame retardance. From the resulting data, kinetic parameters for different stages of thermal degradation are obtained using the method of Broido. The energies of activation for the decomposition of samples are found to be from 72 to 109 kJ mol–1. For wood and modified wood, the char yields are found to increase from 10.2 to 30.2%, LOI from 18 to 36.5, which indicates that the flame retardance of wood treated with compounds is improved. The flame retardant mechanism of different compounds has also been proposed.

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Phenolic extract from banana peel was extracted with 95% ethanol and characterized by LC-TOF-MS/MS. Epicatechin, rutin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, myricetin, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were detected in the extract. Cholate test was performed for the initial examination of the hypolipidemic effect of the dietary fibres. The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with sulphuric acid then sodium hydroxide (SST) and sodium hydroxide treatment (SHT) had high water-holding capacities (7.48 and 6.91 g g−1) and swelling capacities (4.8 and 4.3 ml g−1). The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with trypsin then sulphuric acid (TST) and sulphuric acid treatment (SAT) had high oil-holding capacities (5.52 and 5.10 g g−1) and enhanced capacities for sodium cholate adsorption. Results indicated the potentials of banana peel as functional ingredient in food applications.

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Abstract  

The interactions of lanthanide ions (Ln3+) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under mimetic physiological conditions (310.15 K, pH 6.7, 0.1MNaCl) were studied by microcalorimetry. For the first time, based on Two Sets of Independent Sites Model, molar enthalpies (Δr H m1, Δr H m2) and coordination number (n 1, n 2) of the two sets of binding sites with different affinity were obtained directly from the microcalorimetric results. It was shown that the interactions are endothermic and entropy-driving processes. By combining with fluorescence spectroscopy, other thermodynamic parameters (Δr G m1, Δr S m1) were determined for high-affinity specific sites.

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Abstract  

Combustion experiments of three typical seaweeds (Gracilaria cacalia, Enteromorpha clathrata and Laminaria japonica) have been studied using a DTA-60H Thermal Analyzer and the combustion processes and characteristics are studied. Thermogravimetric experiments are carried out on the samples with 0.18 mm particle size at the heating rate of 20°C min−1. The results indicate that the ignition mode of seaweed is homogeneous and the combustion process is composed of dehydration, the pyrolysis and combustion of volatile, transition stage, the combustion of char as well as the reaction at high temperature. And the combustion characteristic parameters are obtained such as ignition temperature, maximum rate of combustion, burnout temperature etc. The combustion models of these seaweeds are also analyzed. The combustion characteristics and model differences between the seaweed and woody biomass are caused by the differences of volatile components. The combustibility indexes of seaweeds calculated are better than that of woody biomass, and the index of Gracilaria cacalia is the best. At last, activation energies are determined using Arrhenius model that is solved by binary linear regression method.

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Abstract  

Two methods, e.g. initial rate method and thermokinetic reduced extent method were presented for studies on non-competitive inhibition. Arginase-catalyzed the hydrolysis of L-arginine toL-ornithine and urea and the inhibition of this reaction by sodium fluoride were studied in the absence and presence of exogenous of Mn2+at 37C in 40 mM sodium barbiturate-hydrochloric acid buffer solution (pH 7.4). Both methods were successively used to determine the values of K1. The advances and disadvantages of each method were compared in this paper. Exogenous Mn2+ could result in more sensitivity of arginase to F-1. Since the inhibition of arginase by F-1 depends on the pH values of the reaction system and behave as a non-competitive inhibition, it probably due to its small volume and high electronic density allow it access to the activity site of the enzyme and replaces of -OH2 (or -OH) as the bridge ligand with Mn(II, II) cluster. However, further studies are necessary to determine the modes of interaction of F-1 with bovine liver arginase.

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