Improvements in the specifications of low-energy, intrinsic Ge detectors have enabled the routine determination of the concentrations
in geological samples of eleven rare earth elements, including lanthanum, without using a Ge(Li) detector. The efficiency
of an intrinsic Ge detector is compared with a high-efficiency Ge(Li) detector, and a quantitative assessment of the effect
of X-ray and gamma-ray interferences is given. Rare earth element abundances in four U. S. G. S. standard rocks have been
Pure silica zeolite ZSM-5 has been synthesised in a slightly acidic aqueous fluoride medium which produces the protonated
form of the zeolite ZSM-5 . Tetrahalometallate  species of cobalt and manganese have been synthesised and increasing
mole fractions incorporated into the zeolite synthesis gel. The products have been analysed and characterised using simultaneous
thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG). The thermal decomposition, under nitrogen of the associated
tetraethylammonium (TEA+) and tetrapropylammonium (TPA+) cations occluded within the zeolite channels is indicative and characteristic of the incorporation of the heteroatoms into
the zeolitic framework. Analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF),
and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has confirmed the reliability of thermogravimetric (TG) and derived thermogravimetric
analysis (DTG) as a diagnostic tool.
Initial plant scale trials of the nitrosation of an amino acid revealed a number of issues: _ Much lower yield compared to
laboratory scale _ Considerable loss of mass balance _ Large excess of nitrosating agent required for complete reaction _
Highly reactive off-gases produced causing fires in the carbon absorber _ Reaction sensitive to agitation speed _ The by-product
produces an impurity in the next process stage which has high human toxicity A kinetic and mechanistic study of the nitrosation
reaction, using isothermal power compensation calorimetry and GC/mass spectrometry, has been undertaken in order to understand
the above observations and to produce an improved manufacturing process - more robust, higher yielding, reduced effluent volumes
Although it is exciting to witness the culmination of decades of drug policy advocacy and clinical research, the psychedelic science movement struggles with many of the same social issues that plague healthcare in general. The healing properties of plant medicines and their derivatives were originally brought to Western consciousness by indigenous cultures from all over the world. These practices are now being adapted to Western models of healthcare, in part, to achieve governmental approval as medical treatments. The current models of psychedelic psychotherapy being utilized in clinical trials are resource-intensive and therefore likely to remain out of reach for the socioeconomically disadvantaged if approved as medical treatments. Moreover, people of color and women are uncommon in leadership positions in the psychedelic research community, and few people of color are included as research participants in psychedelic studies. This piece introduces a special issue with a focus on issues of diversity, equity, and accessibility in psychedelic medicine.
Authors:W. Grant, C. Christodoulides, D. Pogarides, and J. Williams
Rutherford backscattering provides a simple experimental technique for investigating the thermal oxidation of silicon containing
heavy impurity species. The technique provides both mass and depth analysis of para-surface layers. Using conventional apparatus,
typical depth resolution is 250Å N. This paper describes a simple method of improving the resolution to ∼25 Å. The method
is then illustrated with data on the analysis of thin (<300Å) layers of thermally oxidised silicon containing ion-implanted
impurities. The effect of the type and dose of implanted ions on oxidation rate has been measured. The re-distribution of
implanted ions during thermal oxidation is also investigated.
Authors:Damien C. Hull, Glenn A. Williams, and Mark D. Griffiths
Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video game addiction.
A total of 110 video game players were surveyed about a game they had recently played by using a 24-item checklist of structural characteristics, an adapted Flow State Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Game Addiction Scale.
The study revealed decreases in general happiness had the strongest role in predicting increases in gaming addiction. One of the nine factors of the flow experience was a significant predictor of gaming addiction — perceptions of time being altered during play. The structural characteristic that significantly predicted addiction was its social element with increased sociability being associated with higher levels of addictive-like experiences. Overall, the structural characteristics of video games, elements of the flow experience, and general happiness accounted for 49.2% of the total variance in Game Addiction Scale levels.
Implications for interventions are discussed, particularly with regard to making players more aware of time passing and in capitalising on benefits of social features of video game play to guard against addictive-like tendencies among video game players.
Authors:Ian S. Penton-Voak, Angela C. Rowe, and Jenna Williams
We investigated individuals’ representations of their partners’ facial appearance as a possible contributory factor to relationship maintenance. Couples completed measures assessing their attitudes to their relationship and their partner, and were photographed. These photographs were manipulated to increase or decrease facial attractiveness. Participants were asked to select the veridical image of their partner from a seven image array (three less attractive than the original, the veridical image, and three more attractive than the original). Individuals who rated their relationships positively were more likely to select images of their partners that had been made artificially more attractive as being the veridical images. Individuals dissatisfied with their relationship showed the opposite effect. When participants were analysed independently by sex, these relationships were only present for female participants. Familiar celebrity faces manipulated in the same way were perceived accurately. Implications of these findings for the maintenance of relationships and theories of face perception are discussed.
Authors:R. Herrera, J. Denison, V. Spate, A. Gudiño, C. Baskett, I. Dubman, M. Mason, E. Bohl, A. Williams, T. Nichols, M. Glascock, and J. Morris
The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center (MURR) has been one of the premier providers of neutron activation analysis (NAA) to the high purity materials industry for the past 20 years. Over the last two decades, significant advances in contamination control in the manufacturing process and the development of alternate analytical techniques have challenged the NAA community to keep pace. This paper presents an overview of the High Purity Materials Analysis Program at MURR. Specifically we present trends in the trace element concentrations that we have observed in our laboratory over the past 10 years and compare our experience with the relevant literature. The prospects for the future success of NAA and the methodological changes required for satisfying the industry's need will be discussed.
Authors:Margo Hilbrecht, David Baxter, Max Abbott, Per Binde, Luke Clark, David C. Hodgins, Darrel Manitowabi, Lena Quilty, Jessika SpÅngberg, Rachel Volberg, Douglas Walker, and Robert J. Williams
Background and aims
The Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling moves beyond a symptoms-based view of harm and addresses a broad set of factors related to the risks and effects of gambling harmfully at the individual, family, and community levels. Coauthored by international research experts and informed by multiple stakeholders, Gambling Research Exchange (GREO) facilitated the framework development in 2013 and retains responsibility for regular updates and mobilization. This review article presents information about the revised version of the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling completed in late 2018.
We describe eight interrelated factors depicted in the framework that represent major themes in gambling ranging from the specific (gambling environment, exposure, gambling types, and treatment resources) to the general (cultural, social, psychological, and biological influences). After outlining the framework development and collaborative process, we highlight new topics for the recent update that reflect changes in the gambling landscape and prominent discourses in the scientific community. Some of these topics include social and economic impacts of gambling, and a new model of understanding gambling related harm.
Discussion and conclusions
We address the relevance of the CFHG to the gambling and behavioral addictions research community. Harm-based frameworks have been undertaken in other areas of addiction that can both inform and be informed by a model dedicated to harmful gambling. Further, the framework brings a multi-disciplinary perspective to bear on antecedents and factors that co-occur with harmful gambling.